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27 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is Evolution

What is Natural Selection
Evolution is defined by the change in gene frequencies in a population over time.

Natural selection is a mechanism for evolution to occur. It requires that there be some heritable variation to affect fitness. Fitness is reproductive success.

Origin of Earth
Origin of Life
Origin of Eukaryotic cell by symbiosis
Cambrian explosion
Mass extincion of aquatic life (Paleozoic/Mesozoic)
Mass extinction of dinosaurs
Extinction of most megamamammals
4.6 bya Earth
3.9 Life
542 mya Cambrian
251 Extinct aquatic
65 mya Extinct dinos
13,000 extinct megamammals, mammoths.
What did these people do?

Darwin advocated Natural Selection
Linnaeus set up taxonomy - classification for species
Hutton/lyell advocated gradualism
Cuvier advocated catastophism
Malthus- population is limited to resources
Wallace- guy who also came up with natural selection
Miller/Urey - Showed w/ experiment that in reducing environment - organic can be made from inorganic molecules.
Lamarck - Giraffe - Environment shapes species and they change.
Hardy Weinberg Theory
p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1
p + q = 1
What does it require in order to have constant allele frequencies
Large Population - genetic drift could occur if population is small
Random Mating
No Natural Selection
No Gene Flow
What does it mean when you have Hardy Weinberg equilibrium?
It means that the population is not evolving.
Types of Selection-which one doesn't cause genetic variation?
Directional-moves towards one end
Disruptive (Doesn't cause variation)- moves to both extreme
Stabilizing-avoids both extremes
What are the two patterns of evolutionary change?
Anagenesis - no splitting of the lineage
Cladogenesis - Lineage splitting
What defines a species?
A species is a population that can interbreed and reproduce fertile offspring. They are unable to produce with members of other populations
Name some prezygotic and Postzygotic Barriers
Behavior isolation
Habitat isolation
temporal isolation

reduced hybrid fertility
what is reinforcement and why is it commonly seen in sympatric speciation?
reinforcement is selection against hybrid reproduction due to sterile offspring. it is seen in sympatric because they have evolved to recognize when this will occur?
Species due to geographical separation
Species due to reproductive barriers (Same country)
Species formed when a population diverges due to a strong ecological gradient.
Homology vs anology

give example
Homology is when features are similar due to ancestry like a bat's wing and a humans' arm

Anology is when species are similar due to convergent evolution which is when two completely different organism solve the same ecological problem with the same adaptation - bat wing and bird wing.


Ultrametric Trees
Look on sheet
Look on sheet and review slides
Characteristics of Eukaryotes
Loss of prokaryotic cell wall
Membrane bound nucleus and organelles
Multiple Linear Chromosomes
Characterists of Prokaryotes
Jelly like polysaccharide sace
No Nucleus
Rigid cell wall
Circular chromosomes
Mitochondria and plastids were at first small prokaryotes living off host cell, evidence in seperate DNA and double membrane.
Secondary Endosymbiosis
This cell is eaten by another

Remember that Charophycean is the direct ancestor of produces plants so it's primary endosymbiosis


Giardia has two nuclei and multiple flagella

Euglena has flagella coming out of pocketlike pouch. Also has eyespot where it's photoreceptors function as a light shield and can enhance photosynthesis

Plasmodium - It's what mosquitoes carry to induce malaria in ya!


Paramecium has conjugation and reproduction stages. Conjugation has haploid micronuclei exchange w/ each other and reproduction has micronuclei fuse to make a macronuclei.

Laminaria - Brown Algae, Seaweed Kelp is in diploid stage. Has alternating multicellular haploid and diploid stages.

Amoeba- has lobe shaped puedopodria and eats other protista

Stalk fruit

Unicellular organism that makes community to reproduce is. Some cells make up the stalk and some make up the fruiting body which asexually reproduces.

Ulva is green algae with isomorphic halploid and diploid states.
Challenges of Terrestial Environment
Non Vascular Plants are called and are like...
Bryophytes -Moss
Small and thin leaved

Are mainly in the haploid stage(Gameophyte)
Diploid grows out of haploid
Requires a film of h20 for reproduction - sperm motility
Vascular seedless plants
Lycophyte and Petrophytes
Xylem - Transports h20 w/o energy
Phyloem - Transports amino acids and surges w/ energy
Roots - Absorts H20 and provides anchor
Leaves- surface area to increase photosynthesis

Diploid sporophyte dominates cycle
Seed plants
Gymnosperms and angiosperms

Gametophyte produces from sporophyte

pollen - male
Ovule - Female
Reproduction can occur w/o h20

Fruit we eat is the ovule
Seed advantage in fact we have hard shell for protection and own food supply
In a seed....

Double fertilization
The act by which - in angiosperms

1 egg and 1 sperm fuse to make diploid zygote
1 sperm and 2 female nuclei fuse together to make food for the zygote. Together in the ovule this makes a seed