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24 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
capacity to do work, develop, grow, reproduce, repair
kinetic energy
energy of motion
potential energy
stored energy
First law of thermodynamics
energy can neither be created nor destroyed, plant and animals convert energy
Second law of thermodynamics
energy cannot be changed from one form into another without a loss of usable energy
term used to indicate the relative amount of disorganization in energy transferring
sum of all the biochemical reactions in a cell
free energy
the amount of energy that is free to do work after a chemical reaction
exergonic reaction
have a negative change in free energy, and energy is released
endergonic reaction
have a positive change in free energy, and products have more energy than reactants, such reactions can only occur with an input of energy
adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
energy currency of cells, when cells need energy they spend ATP
coupled reaction
occurs when energy released by an exergonic reaction is used to drive an endergonic reaction
metabolic pathway
orderly sequence of linked reactions, each step is catalyzed by a specific enzyme
reactant for an enzymatic reaction
energy of activation
energy that must be added to cause molecules to react, without an enzyme this energy may be provided by heat, which causes an increase in the number of molecular collisions
active site
small region on the surface of the enzyme where the substrates bind
Factors affect enzymatic speed
substrate concentration, temperature and pH, enzyme concentration,
small organic molecules required in trace amounts for synthesis of coenzymes,
enzyme inhibition
occurs when a substance binds to an enzyme and decreases its activity,
loss of electrons
gain of electrons
know the formula, uses energy to combine carbon dioxide and water to produce glucose
cellular respiration
at the end, glucose has been oxidized to carbon dioxide and water and ATP molecules have been produced
electron transport chain
both photosynthesis and respiration use this, consists of membrane-bound carriers that pass electrons from one carrier to another