Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/87

Click to flip

87 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Pasteur
Spontaneous Generation or Epigenesis
What is life?
1. Assimilate and use energy
2. Respond to environment
3. Homeostasis
4. DNA
5. Reproduce
6. Cells
7. Evolved
8. Organized
evolution
gradual changing of organisms over time
matter
anything that takes up space and has mass
element
"pure"
atoms
smallest unit of matter that can be involved in chemical reactions
atomic weight
protons plus neutrons
atomic number
protons
isotopes
atoms with same protons but different number of neutrons
What do electrons want?
stability, lowest energy state
covalent bonds
unfilled outer shells
law of conservation of mass
matter is neither created nor destroyed
molecules
compound of atoms in a defined spatial relationship
polar
covalent bond, unevenly shared electrons
nonpolar
covalent bond, equal sharing
ions
donar is positive
acceptor is negative
hydrogen bonding
polar covalent bonds, attractions between polar molecules
qualities of chemical compounds
3-D shape, solvents, solutes, solutions, polar or nonpolar
elements
cannot be broken down to simpler substances with different chemical or physical properties
protons
positively charged particles
electrons
negatively charged particles located in orbitals outside the nucleus
atomic number
same number of protons within an element
octet rule
the innermost shell of an atom is complete with 2 electrons; all other shells are complete with 8 electrons
compound
atoms of two or more different elements bond together
ionic bond
electrons are transferred from one atom to another atom
nonpolar covalent bonds
equal sharing of electrons
polar covalent bonds
unequal sharing of electrons
hydrogen bond
weak attractive force between the slight positive charge of the hydrogen atom of one molecule and slightly negative charge of another atom in another or the same molecule
calorie
amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of one gram of water 1C
cohesion
allows water to flow freely without molecules separating
adhesion
ability to adhere to polar surfaces
acid
molecules dissociate in water, releasing hydrogen ions
bases
molecules that take up hydrogen ions or release hydroxide ions
pH
measurement of free hydrogen ions, expressed as a negative logarithm of the H concentration
buffers
keep pH steady and within normal limits in living organisms
What are the four types of organic molecules?
Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids
Hydrogen bonds
chains of carbon atoms bonded exclusively to hydrogen atoms,
skeleton
carbon chain of an organic molecule
Functional groups
clusters of specific atoms bonded to the carbon skeleton with characteristic structure and functions
ethyl alcohol
hydrophilic because the hydroxyl group is polar
hydrophobic
can't dissolve in water, ethane
isomers
molecules with identical molecular formulas but different arrangements of atoms
macromolecules
carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids
polymers
macromolecules, constructed by linking many of the same type of small subunits
dehydration reactions
water molecule is removed and a covalent bond is made between two atoms of the monomers
hydrolosis reactions
break down polymers in reverse of dehydration
enzymes
molecules that speed up chemical reactions by bringing reactants together
monosacchrides
simple sugars with a backbone of 3 to 7 carbons
glucose
source of biochemical energy (ATP) is nearly all organisms
ribose and deoxyribose
five-carbon sugars, contribute to the backbones of DNA and RNA
lactose
composed of galactose and glucose and is found in milk
maltose
composed of two glucose molecules, forms in the digestive tract of humans during starch digestion
sucrose
(table sugar), composed of glucose and fructose
polysacchrides
polymers of monosacchrides, not soluble in water, do not pass through plasma membrane of the cell
starch
is a straight chain of glucose molecules with relatively few side branches
glycogen
highly branched polymer of glucose with side branches
cellulose
polymer of glucose which forms microfibrils, the primary constituent of plant cell walls
phospholipids
form plasma membranes
steriods
important cell messengers
waxes
protective functions in many organisms
What two molecular units are in oils and fats?
glycerol and fatty acids
glycerol
water soluble compound with three hydroxyl groups
triglycerides
glycerol joined to three fatty acids by dehydration reactions
fatty acid
long hydrocarbon chain with a carboxyl (acid) group at one end
saturated fatty acids
have no double bonds between their carbon atoms
unsaturated fatty acids
double bonds in the carbon chain where there are less than two hydrogens per carbon atom
fats
saturated, solid at room temperature
oils
unsaturated, liquid at room temperature
phospholipids
constructed like neutral fats except that the third fatty acid is replaced by a polar phosphate group
waxes
long chain fatty acids bonded to long chain alcohol
enzymes
proteins that act as organic catalysts to accelerate chemical reactions within cells
hormones
regulatory proteins that influence the metabolism of cells
How many different amino acids are found in cells?
20
peptide bond
covalent bond between two amino acids
peptide
two or more amino acids bonded together
polypeptides
chains of many amino acids joined by peptide bonds
primary structure of a protein
own particular sequence of amino acids
secondary structure
polypeptide forms or coils in a particular way
fibrous proteins
structural proteins with helices and/or pleated sheets that hydrogen bond to one another
tertiary structure
results when proteins are folded, giving rise to the three dimensional shape of the protein
quaternery structure
results when two or more polypeptides combine
prions
misfolded proteins
DNA
stores the genetic code for its own replication and for the amino acid sequences in proteins
RNA
allows for the translation of the genetic code of DNA into the amino acid sequence of proteins
ATP
nucleotide used to supply energy for synthetic reactions and other energy-requiring metabolic activities in the cell
complementary base pairing
where two strands of DNA are held together by hydrogen bonds between purine and pyrimidine bases
triphosphate
three phosphate groups attached together and to the ribose