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15 Cards in this Set

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Who was Charles Darwin?
A naturalist on the HMS Beagle. He was a biologist and geologist, came up with natural selection as a mechanism for evolution.
What did Darwin observe on the Galapagos Islands?
Variation between species.
Describe how observing the anatomy of finches helped Darwin to formulate his theory.
He saw how they had similar structures but different traits were expressed depending on their environment.
What are the two main points of Darwin's theory?
-descent with modification
-natural selection
What is Natural Selection? How does it work?
Process by which individuals with inherited characteristics well suited to the environment leave more offspring than do other individuals.
What is a population's "gene pool"?
All of the alleles of all of the individuals in a population.
What exactly is biological "fitness"? What makes one organism more "fit" to survive?
The contribution that that individual makes to that gene pool.
According to Natural Selection, what actually does the selevting?
the ENVIRONMENT!
What is the difference between Natural Selection and Artificial Selection?
Natural: the environment is doing the selecting.
Artificial: people are doing the selecting.
What is a vestigial structure? Give an example.
A remnant of a structure that may have had an important function in a species ancestors, bu has no clear function in the modern species. (ex. human appendix)
How does the Evolutionary Theory apply to Antibiotic Resistance?
When people take antibiotics, those bacteria that survive give rise to offspring that are also resistant.
How do genetic mutations contribute to Natural Selection?
Sometimes genetic mutations help make a species better/stronger, which helps it evolve better.
What is microevolution? Give an example.
Evolution within only a few generations. (pest control)
What is the fossil record?
Chronological collection of life's remains in the rock layers.
What does it mean when insects are "resistant" to a particular pesticide?
they are affected by the pesticide, they already carry that trait.