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66 Cards in this Set

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Isotope
atoms with the same number of protomns but differing numbers of neutrons
denaturation
change in shape or biological activity of protein
sterol
lipids with no fatty acids
cytoplasm
the material within the cell, minus the nucleus and organelles
active site
the region of an enzyme surface to which a specific set of substrate binds
endocytosis
indentation of membrane pinches off to bring materials into cell
feedback inhibition
product of metabolic pathway; shuts down production after certain level is reached
reduction
gain of electrons
phosporylation
transferring phosphate group to create ATP
photolysis
splitting of water molecule into hydrogen, oxygen, and electrons
wavelength
horizontal distance between two crests of successive waves
enzyme
a protein that is capable of speeding up specific chemical reactions by lowering the required activation energy
chloroplast
organelle where photosynthesis takes place
hypertonic
fluid has greater solute concentration relative to another fluid (water goes out, gets smaller)
concentration gradient
moves from high concentration to low concentration
entropy
disorder
osmosis
diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane
passive transport
flow of solutes through membrane down concentration gradient (no energy used)
autotroph
self-feeding
photon
"packets" of light energy
stroma
fluid within the chloroplast; contains tiny circular DNA and ribosomes
glycogen
animal starch, more branched
isotonic
fluid having same solute concentration relative to fluid against which it is being compared (stays the same)
hydrolysis
splitting of water
pigment
captures light energy
diffusion
movement of particles from high concentration to low concentration
exocytosis
vesicle fuses with membrane and releases contents
oxidation
loss of electrons
active transport
pumps move solutes across membrane against concentration gradient (requires energy of ATP)
heterotrph
feeds on many different things
photosystem
pigments organized in clusters in thylakoid membranes
thylakoid
within the stroma; sub-organelles where photosynthesis takes palce
hypotonic
fluid has lesser solute concentration relative to another fluid (water goes in, gets bigger)
cytoskeleton
gives cell shape, organization, and ability to move
Endoplasmic reticulum
moves material through cell
Rough - site pf protein synthesis
Smooth - site of lipid synthesis
flagellum
Has a 9+2 arrangement of microfilaments
They help cells move
Longer than cilia
Golgi body
completes protein assembly
"packages" them for shipment throughout cell
Mitochondria
food is broken down (oxidized) and energy captures in form of ATP
Divide on their own with own DNA
Nucleus
Separates DNA from rest of cell
Composed of: nuclear envelope, nucleolus, chromosomes
Contains DNA
Ribosomes
carry out protein synthesis
vacuole
fluid-filled sac that stores amino acids, sugars, ions, toxins
lysosomes
intracellular digestion of cell/cell parts
Nucelotide
monomer of a nucleic acid; consists of nitrogen base, 5 carbon sugar, and a phosphate
phospholipid
molecules that make up cell membrane, have hydrophilic and hydrophobic part
triglyceride
glycerol molecule with three fatty acid chains coming off of the side
Six kingdoms of life
eubacteria, archaebacteria, protista, fungi, plantae, animalia
Buffers
A buffer is a substance that acts as a reservoir for hydrogen ions, donating them to the solution when their concentration falls and taking them from the solution when their concentration rises. Buffers resist the slight changes in pH and help to stabilize it.
-Formed by weak acid (or base) and salt of that acid (or base)
Subatomic particles and their organization
Electron - negative charge, orbits around the nucleus, smallest
Proton - positive charge, in nucleus, same size as neutron
Neutron - no charge, in nucleus, same size as proton
Hydrogen bonding and how it explains properties of water
-Hydrogen bonding causes water molecules to be attracted to other molecules. They attract polar molecules and repel nonpolar molecules.
-Temperature Stablizing properties: Water needs to absorb a great deal of heat before temperature increases because added energy disrupts hydrogen bonding between molecules, not affecting molecules themselves.
-Because ice floats, it can insulate water beneath it.
-Hydrogen bonding causes high surface tension. Cohesion means it has the capacity to resist rupturing under tension.
Formation of polymers form monomers
Monomers link together to form polymers.
Monosaccharides - polysaccharides
Amino acids - proteins
Nucleotides - nucleic acids
Contrast hydrolysis and dehydration synthesis
In dehydration synthesis, two things bond together to create water. An example is the linking of a monomer.
In hydrolysis, water is split apart. An example is breaking down polymers into monomers by hydrolysis.
Different classes of carbohydrates and an example of each class
Monosaccharides - glucose
Disaccharides - maltose
Polysaccharides - starch
Differences between plant and animal cells
Plant cells have a chloroplast for photosynthesis, they have a cell wall, and they have a large central vacuole. Animal ells do not have these organelles.
Characteristics of living things
1. All living things are composed of one or more cells
2. All living things can reproduce.
3. All living things acquire/use energy
4. All living things grow and develop
5. All living things respond to environment to maintain homeostasis
Functions of proteins
Catalysts (enzymes)
Defense function (antibodies)
Transport (hemoglobin)
Membrane transport (sodium potassium pump)
Structure (muscles, collagen)
Hormones
Construction of cell membrane (fluid mosaic model)
Phospholipid bilayer plus embedded proteins.
The fluid bilayer constantly changes pattern of proteins.
The phospholipids have a hydrophobic tail and a hydrophilic head. They are arranged tail to tail.
Gastro and itis
stomach, inflammation
Gastritis
inflammation of the stomach
C3, C4, and CAM plants
-C3 plants go through the normal light and dark photosynthesis reactions
-C4 plants store carbon in the oxaloacetate and then go to bundle sheath cells where the Calvin cycle takes place
-CAM plants store carbon as acid in vacuoles. When plants are ready for photosynthesis, it is released from vacuole and goes to Calvin cycle.
Light dependent and light independent reactions
Light dependent - ADP, NADP+, and water goes into and comes out as ATP, NADPH, and oxygen.
Light independent - ATP and NADPH go into independent to make glucose
Eubacteria
Single celled prokaryotes
Archaebacteria
single celled prokaryotes, like eukaryotes in genetics
Protista
Unicellular prokayotes, or non specialized multicellular
Fungi
heterotrophic, eukaryotes, mushrooms, not photosynthesis
Animalia
Multicellular animals
Plantae
Trees, flowers
Photosynthesis
Multicellular