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50 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
An ecosystem is self-sufficient if...
page 7
1. it has a constant source of energy
2. it has a living system able to incorporate it into organic compounds
3. it has mechanisms to recycle and cycle materials between organisms and the environment
autotrophs
page 7
can synthesize their own food from inorganic compounds and a usable energy source
heterotrophs
page 7
cannot synthesize their own food
saprophytes
page 8/def
heterotrophic organism (mold, mushroom, fungi, bacteria); obtains its nutrients from dead plant and animal matter
nutrition
page 12
includes activities by which organisms obtain and process nutrients needed for energy, growth, repair, and regulation
environment
def
physical, chemical, biological surroundings
population
page 6
all the members of a species inhabiting a given location at a specific time
community
page 6
all the interacting populations in a given area
ecosystem
page 6
living community and physical environment functioning together as an interdependent, self-sufficient, and relatively stable system
biosphere
page 7
the portion of Earth in which life exists
abiotic
page 6
physical and chemical factors which affect the ability of organisms to live and reproduce
abiotic factors
page 6
-intensity of light
-range of temperature
-amount of moisture
-type of substratum
-availability of inorganic substances (minerals)
-supply of gases (02, c02)
-pH -> air, water, soil
biotic
page 6
all living things that directly or indirectly affect the environment
biotic factors
page 6
organisms, their parts, presence, interation, and wastes
ecology
page 6
the study of interactions among organisms and their interrelationships with the physical environment
hydrolysis
page 14
-splitting of large, insoluble molecules into small, soluble molecules with H2O
-regulated by hydrolytic enzymes in organisms
hydrochloric acid
page 13
-provides an optimum pH for the breakdown of gastric protease
-proteins are digested into polypeptides and dipeptides
gastric glands
page 13
-secrete enzymes and hydrochloric acid
-found in lining of stomach
stomach
page 13
muscular organ in which food is temporarily stored, liquefied to chyme, and where protein digestion begins
esophagus
page 12/def
a muscular tube that connects the pharynx with the crop and gizzard or stomach
egestion
def
elimination of undigested wastes from the digestive system
bile
page 13
-produced in liver
-stored in gall bladder
-chemical that emulsifies (breaks apart) fat
gall bladder
page 13
-secretes bile into the small intestine
-concentrates and stores bile
small intestine
page 13
-long, convoluted tube in which the major portion of food is digested
-chemical digestion of lipids, carbs, and proteins completed there
ingestion
def
process of taking food into the digestive system so that it may be hydrolized or digested
roughage
def
-fiber or cellulose found in vegetables
-cannot be digested
homeostasis
def
balanced and stable internal environment
pancreas
def
-secretes digestive enzymes (exocrine) and hormones (endocrine)
-some enzymes = pancreatic protease, lipase, amylase
saliva
page 12
contains the enzyme amylase which digests starch into disaccharides
peristalsis
page 12
slow, rhythmic muscular contractions which move food through the gastro-intestinal tract
complex carbohydrates
page 12
provide nondigestive materials which increase the amount of roughage
villi
page 13
line the small intestine to increase surface area to improve absorption
lacteal
page 13/def
lymphatic capillary within the villus of the intestine
nutrients
page 12
usuable carbs, proteins, lipids, minerals, vitamins, and water
fats/lipids
page 14
-broken down into 3 fatty acids and a glycerol
-end products absorbed through the villi into the lacteals and transported in the lymph throughout the body
saturated fats
page 14
-solid at room temperature
-increases risk of getting cardiovascular disease
polyunsaturated fats
page 14
-oils
-liquid at room temperature
don't appear to increase risk of getting cardiovascular disease
carbohydrate
def/page 14
specific group of nutrients composed of sugars and starch and containing a 2:1 hydrogen-oxygen ration
large carbs (starches)
page 14
broken down into monosaccharides
monosaccharides
page 14
-simple sugars
-absorbed through villi and enter capillaries to be transported to the liver
polysaccharides
page 15
-ex. starch
-completely hydrolyzed to simple sugars
amino acids
page 15
-absorbed through villi and enter capillaries
-distributed to the cells as needed for protein synthesis
essential amino acids
def/page 15
eight amino acids that cannot be synthesized by the liver; must be included in the diet each day
peptide bonds
def
-electron bond that holds two amino acids together
-broken in the presence of water and protease
protease
def
enzyme which hydrolyzes protein into amino acids
large intestine
page 15/def
specialized compartment of the digestive tube designed to collect undigested materials and reabsorb water
arteries
page 16
-thick-walled, muscular blood vessels
-transport blood away from the heart to all parts of the body
capillaries
page 16
-at the "end" of small arteries
-at the "beginning" of small veins
-tiny blood vessels with walls one cell thick
-exhange dissolved materials by diffusion between the blood and intercellular fluid surrounding all body cells
veins
page 17
-thin-walled blood vessels
-have valves to prevent the backflow of blood
-return blood to the heart
lymph vessels
page 17
-extremely small tubes
-walls one cell thick
-branch through all body tissues
-major ones contain phagocytic cells with filter bacteria and dead cells from lymph
-some have valves