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32 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Rostral
Toward the nose end
Cranial/anterior
Toward the head end
Caudal/posterior
Toward the tail end
Dorsal
Toward the back side
Ventral
Toward the belly side
Midline
An imaginary plane that bisects the body into right and left halves
Median
Lying in or near the midline
Medial
Lying closer to the midline relative to another structure
Lateral
Lying further from the midline relative to another structure
Proximal
Near a structure's origin or point of attachment to the body
Distal
Away from a structure's origin or point of attachment to the body
Superficial
Toward the body surface
Deep
Away from the body surface
Transverse (cross)
A plane that passes at a right angle to the long axis of a body or body structure, usually resulting in cranial and caudal portions
Longitudinal
A plane that extends from cranial to caudal along the long axis of the body. The longitudinal place bisects the transverse plane at a right angle.
Sagittal
A longitudinal plae that divides the body into right and left halves; if this division is into equal halves, it is called midsagittal. If it is into unequal halves, it is called parasagittal.
Frontal (coronal)
A longitudinal plane that extends from cranial to caudal and horizontally from right to left, dividing the body into ventral and dorsal portions.
Flexion
Decrease in angle between articulating bones
Extension
Increase in angle between articulating bones
Abduction
Movement away from body axis
Adduction
Movement toward body axis
Rotation
Movement around a central axis
Supination
Lateral rotation of the manus upward
Pronation
Medial rotation of the manus downward
Masseter
Origin: upper jaw
Insertion: lower jaw
Action: raise and lower jaw
Pectoralis muscles
Origin: sternum
Insertion: humerus
Action: adduct humerus
Biceps femoris
Origin: vertebrae
Insertion: tibia and femur
Action: abduct thigh
Gastrocnemius
Origin: femur
Insertion: tarsals
Action: extends pes
Sternomastoid
Origin: sternum
Insertion: back of skull
Action: lower head
Rectus abdominis
Origin: pelvis
Insertion: sternum and clavicle
Action: flexes vertebral column
Triceps brachii
Origin: humerus
Insertion: ulna
Action: extend forearm
Gluteus muscles
Origin: pelvis
Insertion: femur
Action: abduct thigh