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72 Cards in this Set

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A tiny air sac where respiration happens; plural is alveoli.
What is an Alveolus? p166
microscopic, moist, 1-cell thick, air sacs on brochioles
that get oxygen into blood through tiny capillaries.
A protein in plasma that fights disease.
What is an Antibody? p161
produced in blood to fight harmful organisms & cancer cells.
A bundle of nerves that carry impulses from the ear to the brain.
What is the Auditory Nerve?
p176
Carries impulses to brain from cochlea where they are translated into sounds you can hear.
A substance made in the liver that breaks down fats.
What is Bile? p156
stored by gall bladder & enters small intestine through ducts; aided by pancreatic enzymes.
The force of blood against the walls of blood vessels.
What is Blood Pressure? p161
High _b____ p_____ can damage your heart and can be caused by smoking or drinking which restricts blood vessels.
A tube that branches off the bronchus within the lung.
What is a Bronchiole? p166
Routes air into various sections of lungs into the alveoli.
A tube that connects the trachea and lungs. Plural is Bronchi
What is a Bronchus? p166
Two; one goes to each lung from trachea.
Of or relating to the heart.
What is Cardiac? p158
These muscle tissues help contract and relax in a regular rhythm called the heartbeat which pumps blood into and away from the heart.
Liquid food in the digestive tract that is partly digested.
What is Chyme? p155
Stomach acid and enzymes break down solid food into liquid food called _______in digestion.
The organ in the ear that sends impulses to the auditory nerve.
What is the Cochlea? p176
This resembles a hollow, coiled tube in the inner ear.
A clear layer of the eye that light passes through.
What is the Cornea? p174
Like a lens in a camera; covers the pupil.
A thin tissue in the middle ear that vibrates when sound waves strike it.
What is the Eardrum? p176
Found at end of ear canal in the middle ear and transmits sound waves to inner ear and cochlea.
A series of organs that gets rid of cell wastes in the form of urine.
What is the Excretory System?
p170
Rids body of poisonous nitrogen wastes made by cellular respiration through the kidneys-ureters-bladder & urethra.
Solid waste material remaining in the large intestine after digestion.
What is Feces? p157.
This solid waste is moved from large intestine to the rectum and out the anus.
The digestive organ attached to the liver that stores bile.
What is the Gallbladder? p156
This organ stores bile produced in liver & used in digestion.
A substance in red blood cells that carries oxygen.
What is Hemoglobin? p162
Gives up oxygen to cells and takes on carbon dioxide and in lungs exchanges carbon dioxide for oxygen making blood bright red.
A muscle that a person cannot control.
What is an Involuntary Muscle? p184
Ex. Smooth Muscles that react to changes in your body
The part of the eye that controls the amount of light that enters.
What is the Iris? p174
The colored part of your eyes made of tiny muscles in a ring which contracts or widens the pupil regulating the light entering the eye.
An organ of excretion found in vertebrates; the organ where urine forms.
What is the Kidney? p170
It filters wastes out of the blood composed of nitrogen along with excess water & salt.
A tissue that connects bone to bone.
What is a Ligament? p181
These strips of strong tissue can stretch allowing bones to move at joints.
A nerve cell. 3 types include Sensory, Motor and Associative in the Nervous System.
What is a Neuron? p173
Cells that send messages in the form of electrical signals all through the body passing from one neuron to the next.
A bundle of nerves that carry impulses from the eye to the brain.
What is the Optic Nerve?
p175
It carries impulses to brain which translates them into images you can see in milliseconds.
A disease in which bones become lighter and break easily.
What is Osteoporosis? p181
Generally affects menopausal women but can occur in middle age women/men.
The movement of digestive organs that pushes food through the digestive tract.
What is Peristalsis? p155
The process of contracting smooth muscles that forces food along digestive tract.
Liquid waste made of heat,water and salt released through the skin.
What is Perspiration? p169
This cools the body as water evaporates from the skin.
The liquid part of blood.
What is Plasma? p161
This is 50% of blood, mostly water but also contains minerals, vitamins, food molecules, and oxygen.
Tiny cell pieces that help blood to clot.
What are Platelets? p163
Tiny cell pieces with no regular shape, that collect where skin is cut and stick to each other, the broken blood vessel and red blood cells forming a clot.
A cell that receives information about the environment and starts nerve impulses to send that information to the brain.
What are Receptor Cells? p174
These cells use sensory neurons to send impulses to the brain which interprets what you see, hear, feel, smell, and touch.
The lower part of the large intestine where feces are stored.
What is the Rectum? p157
The end of the large intestine which uses smooth muscles to push feces out the anus during bowel movements.
The spongy material in bones that makes blood cells.
What is Red Marrow? p180
If defective in making red blood cells, the disorder leads to pernicious anemia and leukemia eventually.
A substance in red blood cells that carries oxygen.
What is Hemoglobin? p162
Gives up oxygen to cells and takes on carbon dioxide and in lungs exchanges carbon dioxide for oxygen making blood bright red.
A muscle that a person cannot control.
What is an Involuntary Muscle? p184
Ex. Smooth Muscles that react to changes in your body
The part of the eye that controls the amount of light that enters.
What is the Iris? p174
The colored part of your eyes made of tiny muscles in a ring which contracts or widens the pupil regulating the light entering the eye.
An organ of excretion found in vertebrates; the organ where urine forms.
What is the Kidney? p170
It filters wastes out of the blood composed of nitrogen along with excess water & salt.
A tissue that connects bone to bone.
What is a Ligament? p181
These strips of strong tissue can stretch allowing bones to move at joints.
A nerve cell. 3 types include Sensory, Motor and Associative in the Nervous System.
What is a Neuron? p173
Cells that send messages in the form of electrical signals all through the body passing from one neuron to the next.
A bundle of nerves that carry impulses from the eye to the brain.
What is the Optic Nerve?
p175
It carries impulses to brain which translates them into images you can see in milliseconds.
A disease in which bones become lighter and break easily.
What is Osteoporosis? p181
Generally affects menopausal women but can occur in middle age women/men.
The movement of digestive organs that pushes food through the digestive tract.
What is Peristalsis? p155
The process of contracting smooth muscles that forces food along digestive tract.
Liquid waste made of heat,water and salt released through the skin.
What is Perspiration? p169
This cools the body as water evaporates from the skin.
The network of bones in the body.
What is the Skeletal System?
p180
The adult ________ _______ has 206 bones which frame the body for softer tissues, protects organs, and allows the body to move.
A tiny gap between neurons.
What is a Synapse? p173
When impulses reach the end of a neuron, a chemical is released in this gap helping the impulse to cross over to the next neuron repeating the process until reaching the brain.
The tube that carries air to the bronchi.
What is the Trachea? p166
The windpipe which branches off the larynx carrying air to lungs.
A tube that carries urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder.
What is the Ureter? p170
Transports urine to bladder from right and left kidneys
The tube that carries urine out of the body.
What is the Urethra? p170
A tube passing out the vagina in females and the penis in males for expulsion of waste urine.
Liquid waste formed in the kidneys.
What is Urine? p170
Filtered liquid wastes produced in the body.
Finger-shaped structures in the small intestine through which food molecules enter the blood.
What are Villi? p156
Its blood vessels absorb food molecules and the blood carries these nutrients to cells all through the body.
A muscle that a person can control.
What is a Voluntary Muscle?
p184
These type muscles work when we choose to use them. Ex. skeletal muscles of arms, legs and face.
A body system that breaks down food into energy the body can use for cells.
What is the Digestive System?
p154
This system extracts carbohydrates, proteins, and fats from food we eat and convert it into a form the cells can use for energy.
The system of organs and structures by which blood and lymph are circulated throughout the body.
What is the Circulatory System? p118
Vertebrates have a Closed Circulatory System in which the blood stays inside vessels at all times with oxygen and carbon dioxide diffusing into or out of the blood across capillary walls.
This system of organs and structures help oxygen enter the body and gets rid of carbon dioxide.
What is the Respiratory System? p166
This system requires inhaling air into the lungs to get oxygen into blood and exhaling carbon dioxide from lungs as a by-product.
This system of organs and structures controls the activities of the human body by the Central part(brain & spinal cord) and the Peripheral part (nerves outside the CNS)carrying messages to other parts of body.
What is the Nervous System?
p170
Consists of Brain, Spinal Cord and Peripheral Nerves.
This system consists of glands that secrete substances called hormones (chemical messengers) into bloodstream to regulate body activities.
What is the Endocrine System?
p178
Ex. adrenal glands secret aldosterone regulating sodium & water in bloodstream, pancreas secretes insulin which changes cells so glucose can enter them, pituitary gland secretes growth hormone causing bones & muscles growth.
The system of muscles, muscle pairs,and tendons which attached to the skeletal system allow for body movement.
What is the Muscular System?
p182
This system uses tendons to attach muscles to bones and pairs muscles for relaxation and contraction to move the skeletal system
These cells on parts of the tongue regulate the sense of taste.
What are Taste Bud Receptor Cells? p177
Taste areas are tongue tip = sweet, anterior sides = salty, posterior sides = sour
& back of tongue = bitter.
The two bottom chambers of heart, the right side pumps blood to lungs for oxygen while the left pumps the blood out to all body parts.
What are the Right & Left Ventricles ? p241
Oxygen-free blood is blue in the Right V________ while oxygen-rich blood is in the Left V__________.
The two top chambers of the heart. The right side receives blood from body while the left side send blood to the body.
What are the Right and Left Atriums? p241
Oxygen-free blood (blue) is in right A______ while oxygen-rich blood is in the Left A_______ and is bright red.
The largest part of brain that controls voluntary movement, thinking, & memory.
Has two halves with the right controling left side of body while the left controls the right side of body.,
What is the Cerebrum? p172
Controls how we think, learn, remember, & feel. Also, controls skeletal muscles & interprets messages from sense organs.
The part of brain below the cerebrum which controls your balance.
What is the Cerebellum? p172
Helps muscles work together for fine and gross motor skills (i.e. , walk & write smoothly.
Connects brain with spinal cord controlling automatic activities of body. (i.e., heart rate, gland secretions,
digestion, respiration and circulation.
What is the Brain Stem / Medulla Oblongata:? p 172
Coordinates movements of muscles that move w/out you thinking about them; (ex. stomach muscles.
The largest part of the brain which controls voluntary movement, thinking, & memory.
What is the Cerebrum? p172
3/4 of human brain, interprets messages from sense organs, two halves w/ left half controling right side of body & right half controling left side of body.
The part of brain in the back of head which helps with coordination & balance.
What is the Cerebellum? p172
Below back of cerebrum, helps with muscle coordination and balance.
The part of brain that connects the brain to spinal cord. The lower part is the Medulla Oblongata which controls involuntary body functions like breathing, digestion, and heart rate.
What is the Brain Stem? p172
The medulla also controls functions of glands.
Tiny receptor cells on tongue that distinquish four basic kinds of tastes: Sweet, Salty, Sour, and Bitter.
What are Taste Bud Receptor cells? p177
Front tip of tongue = sweet, anterior sides = salty, posterior sides = sour, and back palate = bitter. The sense of taste depends on the sense of smell.
Receptor cells in the nose that sense smells. No smell = no taste.
Nasal Receptor Cells p177
If you hold your nose while you chew food, much of your sense of _t______ goes away.
The two upper chambers of heart. The left one receives oxygen-free (blue) blood from the body while the right one sends oxygen-rich (red) blood
out to all parts of body.
What are the left and right Atria. p241
These chambers at top of heart receive and send out nutrients & oxygen in blood to the body.
The two lower chambers of heart with the right side pumping blood to lungs where it picks up oxygen, while the left side receives blood back from lungs wher it moves through the aorta and out to parts of the body.
What are the left and right Ventricals. p. 241
These lower chambers of heart are circulating blood to the lungs , back to heart and out to body cells with minerals & oxygen.