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32 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Manipulation of DNA sequences in organisms is known as _____ ______ and techniques used to engineer genes are called _____ ______ _____
Genetic engineering

Recombinant DNA technology
______ _______ results from the lack of production of growth hormone, encoded by the GH1 gene
Pituitary dwarfism
Early trials showed that people with pituitary dwarfism could be treated successfully with ____ _____ _____, but only if the protein came from humans
Growth hormone therapy
Today, human treatment with growth hormone from cadavers has been banned due to possible contamination with _____ - protein particles that have been implicated as the cause of various neurodegenerative disorders
_______ involves isolating the gene, making many copies of the gene and then inserting it into a bacterium that can transcribe the gene to make the hormone
The enzyme _____ _______ ca synthesize DNA from an RNA template
Reverse transcriptase
Researchers used reverse transcriptase to make _______ ____ from mRNA isolated from pituitary cells
Complementary DNA (cDNA)
cDNA is any DNA made from an RNA template
They then used ____ ______ - the process of producing many identical copies of a gene - to copy the cDNAs for analysis to determine which coded for the growth hormone protein
DNA cloning
_____ are small, circular DNA molecules often found in bacteria. They replicate independently of the chromosome.
Plasmids can serve as a _____ - a vehicle for transferring recombinant genes to a new host
________ _______ are bacterial enzymes that cut DNA at specific base sequences called recognition sites
Restriction endonuclease
The first step in cloning genes into plasmids is to cut the plasmid and the cDNA with the same restriction endonuclease.
Restriction endonucleases often make staggered cuts in the DNA, resulting in ____ _____, complementary single stranded ends
Sticky ends
____ _______ seals the recombinant pieces of the DNA together
DNA ligase
Plasmid vectors can be introduced into bacteria by ________, the process of taking up DNA from the environment and incorporating it into the genome
A ___ _______ is a collection of transformed bacterial cells, each containing a vector with an inserted gene
DNA library
A ____ _______ is a collection of bacterial cells, each containing a vector with one cDNA
cDNA library
A _______ ________ is made up of cloned DNA fragments representing an entire genome
Genomic library
Another method of cloning DNA is the ______ ______ ______
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
Polymerase Chain Reaction Steps

1- A reaction mix containg dNTPs, a ____ template, copies of the two primers, and Taq polymerase
Polymerase Chain Reaction Steps
2- _________ - heating the mixture to 95 degrees C separates the two strands of DNA
Polymerase Chain Reaction Steps

3- ______ ________ - cooling the mixture allows the primers to bond, or anneal, to complementary sections of single-stranded target DNA
Primer annealing
Polymerase Chain Reaction Steps

4- _______ - heating the mixture to 72 degrees C causes the Taq polymerase to synthesize the complementary DNA strand from the dNTPs, starting at the primer
Fredrick Sanger developed _______ _____ as a method for determining DNA sequences
Dideoxy sequencing
Dideozy sequencing is carried out by adding both ____________ _________ and deozyrebonucleotide triphosphate (dNTPs) to the synthesis reaction
Dideoxynucleotide triphosphates (ddNTPs)
ddNTPs are identical to dNTPs except that they lack the __ ________ ______
3' hydroxyl group
Because of this lack, DNA __________ stops once a ddNTP is added to a growing strand
______ _______ is the introduction of a gene into affected cells to replace or augment defective copies of the gene with normal alleles. Often viruses are used
Gene therapy
The current vector of choice in gene therapy are ________
These are viruses with an RNA genome, including the enzyme _____ _______
Reverse transcriptase
The complete DNA sequence of an organism is its ______
________ is the scientific effort to sequence, interpret, and compare whole genomes
Genomics provides a list of genes present in an organism. ______ ______ looks at when those genes are expressed and how their products interact
Functional genomics