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73 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are the monomers of Nucleic acid
Proteins
Carbohydrates
Nucleotide monomers
Amino acid monomers
monosaccharides
what bonds do the monomers form
Nucleic acid
Proteins
Carbohydrates
Phosphodiester linkages

Peptide bond (C-N)

Gylcosidic linkages
What are lipids
Lipids are carbon-containing compounds that are found in organisms and that are largely nonpolar and hydrophobic
What are hydrocarbons
Hydrocarbons are nonpolar molecules that contain only carbon and hydrogen
What are fatty acids
A fatty acid is a hydrocarbon chain bonded to a carboxyl (-COOH) functional group (lipids do not dissolve in water because of the hydrocarbon in the fatty acids)
What are the three most important types of lipids
Steroids- are a family of lipids with a distinct four-ring structure (Cholesterol is an important steroid in mammals)

Fats- are composed of three fatty acids linked to a glycerol by ester linkages (also called triglycerides)

Phospholipids- consist of a glycerol linked to a phosphate group and to either two chains of isoprene or fatty acids
What are saturated fatty acids
saturated fatty acids are fatty acid molecules that lack double bonds between the carbons of their hydrocarbon chains. These fatty acids contain as many hydrogen as they can potentially hold
What are unsaturated fats
Unsaturated fats are fatty acid molecules that contain double bonds between some carbons in the chain. by having double bonds, this reduces the number of bonded hydrogen atoms and the melt at a lower temperature
What is a phospholipid
Phospholipids are the main component of biological membranes, consist of a glycerol linked to a phosphate group and either two chains of isoprene or two fatty acids
Define amphipathic
Have polar and nonpolar regions
In phosopholipids the "head" region, consisting of a glycerol, a phosphate, and a charged group, contains highly _________ ________ bonds

The "tail" region is comprised of 2 __________ fatty acid or isoprene chains
Polar covalent

Nonpolar
Upon contact with water phospholipids form either
Micelles

Phospholipid bilayers (lipid bilayers)
What are some of the factors that influence the permeability of the membrane
Number of double bonds between the carbons in the phospholipids hydrophobic tail

Length of the tail

Number of cholesterol molecules

Temperature
What are integral proteins
Integral proteins are amphipathic and so can span a bilayer membrane, with segments facing both its interior and exterior surfaces
Integral proteins that span the membrane are called
Transmembrane proteins
What are peripheral proteins
peripheral proteins are found only on one side of the membrane - often attached to integral proteins
What are the three broad classes of transmembrane proteins
Channels
Carrier proteins (transporters)
Pumps
What are ion channels
Ion channels are specialized membrane channel proteins. Ion channels bypass the plasma membrane's impermeability to small, charged compounds
According to morphology, there are two broad groupings of life
Prokaryotes - which lack a membrane bound nucleus

Eukaryotes - which have such a nucleus
Based on phylogeny (evolutionary history) there are three domains
Bacteria (prokaryotic)
Archaea (prokaryotic
Eukarya (eukaryotic)
All prokaryotes lack
a membrane bound nucleus and membrane bound organelles
Most prokaryotes contain several structural similarities
Plasma membrane

A circular DNA molecule (nucleoid)

Ribosomes - structures that manufacture proteins

Stiff cell wall

Cytoplasm - the fluid that occupies much of the volume of the cell
Most prokaryotic species have one supercoiled circular ________ found in the nucleoid region of the cell
Chromosome
contains a long strand of DNA and a few supportive proteins
Many bacteria also contain Plasmids. what are plasmids
Small, circular DNA molecules

Plasmids usually contain genes that help the cell adapt to unusual environmental conditions
The inside of many prokaryotic cells is supported by a _______ of long thin protein filaments
cytoskeleton
Are most eukaryotic cells smaller or larger than prokayotic cells
Larger
Compartmentalization of eukaryotic cells offers 2 primary advantages
Separation of incompatible chemical reaction

Increasing the efficiency of chemical reactions
What are the 4 main differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells
Eukaryotic chromosomes are inside a membrane bound compartment called a nucleus

Eukaryotic cells are often much larger

Eukaryotic cells contain large amounts of internal membranes including those around the organelles

Eukaryotic cells feature an extensive cytoskeleton
The nucleus is surrounded by a double membrane __________ and is covered with _______
Nuclear envelope

Nuclear pores
Where are the components of ribosomes assembled
The nucleus has a distinct region called the nucleolus, this is where the components of ribosomes are assembled
The ______ is a network of membrane bound tubes and sacs studded with ribosomes
Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER)
What is the interior of the RER called
The interior is called the lumen
What are the two functions of the RER
Ribosomes associated with the rough ER synthesize proteins

New proteins are folded and processed in the rough ER lumen
What is the function of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER)
Enzymes within the smooth ER synthesize fatty acids and phospholipids. May detoxify poisions
The Golgi apparatus is formed by a series of flat membranous sacs called
Cisternae
What is the function of the Golgi apparatus
The Golgi apparatus processes, sorts, and ships proteins synthesized in the rough ER

Membranous vesicles carry materials to and from the organelle
Are ribosomes organelles?
Ribosomes are non-membranous and therefore they are not considered organelles
Ribosomes can be attached to the rough ER or free in the _______, the fluid part of the cytoplasm
Cytosol
What is the function of ribosomes
Protein synthesis
What are peroxisomes
Peroxisomes are globular organelles bound by a single membrane

They are the center of oxidation reactions
Special peroxisomes in plants called ________ are packed with enzymes that oxidize fats to form a compound that can be used to store energy for the cell
Glyoxysomes
What are lysosomes
lysosomes are single membrane bound structures containing approximately 40 different digestive enzymes

They are found in animal cells

They are used for digestion and waste processing
Materials are delivered to the lysosomes by three processes
Phagocytosis - occurs when the substance to be transported into the cell is large

Pinocytosis occurs when water is transported into the cell. the result is a vesicle (small vacuole)

Receptor-mediated endocytosis is a form of pinocytosis.
What is endocytosis
Endocytosis is a process by which the cell membrane can pinch off a vesicle to bring outside material into the cells
What are vacuoles
Vacuoles are large membrane bound structures found in plants and fungi

Most are used for storage of water and/or ions to help the cell maintain its normal volume

Some vacuoles are specialized for digestion
Mitochondria have two membranes; the inner one is folded into a series of sac-like _______. The solution inside the __ is called the ________
Cristae

Mitochondrial matirx
What is the main function of Mitochondria
ATP production
Most plan and algal cells have ______ that, like mitochondria, have a double membrane and contain their own DNA
chloroplasts
Chloroplasts contain membrane bound, flattened vesicles called _______, which are stacked into piles called _______
Thylakoids
Grana
Outside the thylakoids, in chloroplasts, the solution is called _______
Stroma
Some plants have a secondary cell wall, laid down after the cell reaches its final size, containing _______
Lignin
The ______ is composed of protein fibers and gives the cell its shape, structural stability and helps cell movement and transport of materials
Cytoskeleton
The inside surface of the nuclear envelope is linked to proteins that form a lattice-like sheet called the _________
Nuclear lamina
Proteins destined for the nucleus have a molecular "zip code" called
The nuclear localization signal (NLS)
What does the secretory pathway hypothesis propose?
The secretory pathway hypothesis proposes that proteins intended for secretion from the cell are synthesized and processed in a highly prescribed set of steps
The RER and Golgi apparatus function as a integrated
Endomembrane System
The endomembrane system is composed of
the smooth and rough ER and the Golgi apparatus. it is the primary system for protein and lipid synthesis
What does the signal hypothesis predict
The signal hypothesis predicts that proteins bound for the endomembrane system have a "zip code" that directs the growing polypeptide to the ER
This "zip code" is called
The ER signal sequence
The ER signal sequence binds to a _________ that then binds to a receptor in the ER membrane
Signal recognition particle (SRP)
In the RER lumen, proteins are folded and _______
glycosylated
The Golgi apparatus's composition is dynamic. New cisternae form from the _____ and old cisternae break off from the _____
cis face
trans face
Some proteins are sent to the cell surface in vesicles that fuse with the plasma membrane, releasing their contents to the exterior of the cell in a process callled
Exocytosis
There are three types of cytoskeltal elements
Actin filaments (microfilaments)
Intermediate filaments
Microtubules
Actin filaments can be involved in movement by interacting with the motor protein _____
Myosin
Actin-myosin interactions can cause
cell movement
Intermediate filaments provide
Structural support
they are not involved in movement
Microtubules are large, hollow tubes made of ______
tubulin dimers (two part compounds)
Microtubules originate from the
Microtubule organizing center
Animal cells have just one microtubule organizing center called the
centrosome
Centrosomes have two microtubule bundles called
Centrioles
What is the function of microtubules in a cell
Microtubules provide stability and are involved in movement; the may also provide a structural framework for organelles
They transport vesicles in an energy dependent process
Microtubules require ATP and _______ for vesicle transport
Kinesin
Kinesin is a motor protein