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56 Cards in this Set

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Prokaryotic or Eukaryotic?
Eukaryotic
How do they obtain food? (Heterotrophic...)
Nonphotosynthetic (saprobic)
Double P's
Parasites and Predators
Size ranges from...
Microscopic to the largest organism in the world: Armillaria 861,000 ft^2
What is the largest organism in the world?
Armillaria
How large is it?
861,000 ft^2
What are hyphae?
Filaments of fungi; increase in length by cellular growth and division at the tip
Cell walls are made of what?
Chitin
What is the distinguishing feature from plants?
Cell walls made of chitin; plants have a cell wall made of cellulose
What are septa?
Cell walls that divide hyhae
What are septate hyphae?
Cell walls
What does coenocytic mean?
No septa
What is dimorphism?
The ability of an organism to change form
What are the three ways they reproduce asexually?
Spores, fragmentation, and budding
What are sporangiophores?
Specialized hyphae that look like upright stalks
What is sporangium?
Sac on top of sporangiophore
What are sporangiospores?
Spores inside the sporangium
What is an example of a sporangiospore?
Rhizopus stolonifer- black bread mold
What are conidia?
Spores without a sac
What is an example of conidia?
Penicillium
What is a conidiophore?
Stalklike structure
What is fragmentation?
Septate hyphae dries and shatters
What is an example of fragmentation?
Athlete's foot
Describe sexual reproduction.
Mating types "plus" and "minus"; two different mating types fuse
What does sexual reproduction allow for?
Genetic diversity
What are the two stages of sexual reproduction?
Plasmogamy and karyogamy
What is the fungus known as between the two stages?
Heterokaryon
What is plasmogamy?
Combining/sharing cytoplasm
What is karyogamy?
Fusion of haploid nuclei
What is a heterokaryon?
1 fungi with 2 sets of genetic information
How long can there be between plasmogamy and karyogamy?
Hours, centuries, etc.
What is budding?
Part of a cell pinches off to produce a new yeast
What is the only thing that undergoes budding?
Yeast
What do molecular studies indicate are the closest relatives of fungi?
Animals, not plants
Fungi are heterotrophs that acquire their nutrients by ___.
Absorption
A fungus digests food where?
Outside its body
In order to digest food outside its body, a fungus secretes ___.
Exoenzymes
What do exoenzymes do?
Decompose complex molecules to the simpler compounds that the fungus can absorb and use
A fungus digests like our stomach ___ ___.
Inside out
What is another word for decomposers?
Saprobes
Yeasts are ___cellular.
Unicellular
Except for yeasts, the bodies of fungi are constructed of tiny filaments called ___.
Hyphae
The hyphae form an interwoven mat called a ___.
Mycelium
Most fungi are multicellular with hyphae divided into cells by cross-walls, or ___.
Septa
The septa generally have ___ large enough to allow ribosomes, mitochondria, and even nuclei to flow from cell to cell.
Pores
Most fungi build their cell walls mainly of ___.
Chitin
Chitin is also found where?
External skeletons of insects and other arthropods.
What are fungi without their hyphae divided into cells by cross-walls called?
Coenocytic fungi: continuous cytoplasmic mass with hundreds or thousands of nuclei
The fungus concentrates its energy and resources on adding hyphal ___.
Length (NOT GIRTH!)
Spores = ___
Asexual
___, which are reproductive structures of certain fungi, can puff out clouds containing trillions of spores.
Puffballs
The nuclei of fungal hyphae and spores of most species are ___.
Haploid
What means "different nuclei"?
Heterokaryon
What is the fusion of the two parents' cytoplasm when their mycelia come together?
Plasmogamy
What is the fusion of the haploid nuclei contributed by the two parents?
Karyogamy
What means "two nuclei"?
Dikaryotic