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22 Cards in this Set

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Seed
embryo of a plant, surrounded by the endosperm
covered by one or more protective seed coats
carried by wind, water, or animals
may lie dormant for many months until conditions are right and develop into a seedling.
Endosperm
tissue containing stored food
Gymnosperm
- Means "naked seed"
- seeds develop in exposed positions on scales of CONES rather than in the ovary (fruit)
4 phylums of Gymnosperm
1) Cycadophyta
2) Ginkgophyta
3) Coniferophyta
4) Gnetophyta
Cycadophyta
really really old, resemble palm trees but actually bear cones, mostly from dino days
Ginkgophyta
-single one survives today
- Ginkgo biloba
- leaves are fan shaped and lobed
- have male and female trees
- popular suburban shade trees
Coniferophyta
pines, spruces, firs, cadars, and sequoias.
- most common
- mostly evergreen
why is the coniferophyta phylum the most common?
because it can survive places that other gymnosperms can not, such as rocky, sandy soil and soils that wouldnt be able to support broad-leaf trees.
Cones
Two types:
1) seed- woody, develop over a period of several months
2) Pollen- smaller than seed cones, and usually go unnoticed. are yellow or reddish and remain only a few days after the pollen is released
Gnetophyta
cone bearing but have a vascular system more like angiosperms
Angiosperms
-Phylum Anthophyta
- all flowering plants
- dominant plant life
Angiosperms success due to
1) their variety (flowers, cacti, floating, and climbing)
2) their versitility of environments- can live in water, dry areas, tundra, or swamps
3) seeds- can be helped distributed by animals
4) relationship with insects for pollination
Two classes of Angiosperms
Monocotyledon (one leaf)
and Dicotyledon (two leaves)
cotyledon
seed leaves of an embryo plant
Monocot have how many cotyledons
1
dicots have how many cotyledons
2
venation of monocots
parallel
venation of dicots
net
flower symmetry of monocots
3- such as grass, onion
flower symmetry of dicots
4- such as sunflowers or pansies
Vegetative organ
carries out all necessary life processes except reproduction
3 vegetative organs
1) roots: absorb water, anchor the plant, and store food (in beets turnips radishes celery and asparagus)
2) Stem: support and transport and photosynthesis
3) Leaves: photosynthesis, exchange of CO2 and O2