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35 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Refraction in the eye can be caused by two distinct structures
Cornea
Lens
What is the term for the lens changing shape to focus?
accommodation
The contraction of ______ muscle causes the lens to change shape
ciliary muscle
Contraction of the ciliary muscle relieves the tension on the _________ fibre, allowing the lens to become rounder due to its natural elasticity
zonule
What is the term for 'normal' eyes?
emmetropic
(Hyperopia/Myopia) is farsightedness
Hyperopia
(Hyperopia/Myopia) is nearsightedness
Myopia
A convex len is placed in front of the eye to allow refraction of near objects (Hyperopia/Myopia)
Hyperopia
A concave len is placed in front of the eye to allow refraction of near objects (Hyperopia/Myopia)
Myopia
What is the term for corrective laser surgery?
photorefractive keratectomy
Horizontal, bipolar, amacrine and ganglion cells do the _________ before sending the visual information through the optic nerve
pre-processing
What are the 2 types of retinal neuron?
bipolar
horizontal
_____ cells create the direct pathway from photoreceptors to ganglion cells
bipolar
______ cells feed information laterally in the outer plexiform layer to influence neighbouring cells
horizontal
Sound is actually a series of changes in _____
air pressure
The ______ and ______ (external parts of the ear) focus the sound into the external auditory meatus
concha
pina
The _____ _________ selectively amplifies sound in the 2 - 5 Hz range by 30 - 100 fold
auditory meatus
As sound passes through the auditory meatus it hits the ___________ membrane
tympanic
The cochlea is the point of ________ where the pressure waves are turned into nerve singals
integration
Where are the inner hair cells situated?
scala media
When the stereocilia are disturbed we get ____________ transduction
mechanoelectrical
The _________ of the scala media is high in K+ and as a result opening of the channel causes the cell to depolarise
endolymph
Depolarisation of the endolymph results in the opening of voltage gated ____ channels which then transmit the signal in neurotransmitter release
Ca2+
The auditory complex is located on the ______ ________ ______ in the temporal lobe of the brain
superior temporal gyrus
What are the 3 senses associated with the nose and mouth?
olfactory
gustatory
trigeminal
Odorants interact with ______ _____ ______
olfactory receptor neurons
Where are olfactory receptor neurons located?
in the olfactory epithelium
signals from the olfactory epithelium is sent to the ________ cortex in the temporal lobe
pyriform cortex
Odorant molecule activates a _______ to create activation of adenyl cyclase III
G-protein
The active adenyl cyclase III causes activation of _______ channel
Na+/Ca2+
what are the 4 olfactory bulb target?
Pyriform cortex
Olfactory tubercle
Amygdala
Entortinal cortex
Pyriform cortex, Olfactory tubercle, Amygdala, Entortinal cortex all targets which 3 organs?
Oribitofrontal cortex
Thalamus
Hypothalamus
(Pyriform cortex/Olfactory tubercle
Amygdala/Entortinal cortex) only targets the orbitofrontal cortex
pyriform cortex
(Pyriform cortex/Olfactory tubercle
Amygdala/Entortinal cortex) only targets the hippocampal formation
entortinal cortex
What are the 5 taste
Bitter
Sour
Sweet
Salty
Unami