Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/37

Click to flip

37 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
GENETICS
the study of heredity
HEREDITY
-the transferring of traits from parents to offspring
-"Mendelian genetics"
GREGOR
MENDEL
1856
-austrian monk/science
teacher who applied a
new approach to heredity
-in the 1860s he used
pea plants to observe the
traits of heredity
-observed the traits of
heredity
-observed 7 different
characteristics, and
studied each individually
MENDEL'S
OBSERVATIONS
-crossed different traits
in the parental (p) generation
-results:all of the offspring
in the first filial were alike,
and resembled only one parent
INHERITED
CHARACTERISTICS
controlled factors that
come in pairs
LAW OF
DOMINANCE
-one factor in a pair may
dominate the other, so
the other has no effect
--dominant
--recessive
DOMINANT
controlling factor
(represented by a
capital letter)
RECESSIVE
hidden factor
(represented
by a lower-case
letter)
LAW OF
SEGREGATION
during gamete formation,
a pair of factors is
segregated or seperated
LAW OF
INDEPENDENT
ASSORTMENT
factors (genes) for different
traits are seperated and
distributed to gametes
independently of other genes
INCOMPLETE
DOMINANCE
neither factor dominates
for gene expression
GENE
the location of a
chromosome for a
specific trait
ALLELE
physical characteristic
of a gene
ex: height
-tall
-short
GENOTYPE
the combination of genes
in an organism
ex: flower color
-homozygous dominant(RR)
-homozygous recessive(rr)
-heterozygous
PHENOTYPE
the effects caused by
genes that determine
physical appearance
-based on genotype
ex: red(RR,Rr), white(rr)
PROBABILITY
the prediction and
likelyhood that certain
events will occur
PRODUCT RULE
the probability of a
series of events is
the product of each
individual event
ADDITION
RULE
if an event can occur
in multiple ways add
each individual property
MONOHYBRID
CROSSES
-determining outcome
based on a single gene
-each gene has more
than one allele
-offspring have a certain
probability of phenotype
based on their parents'
genotypes
PUNNETT
SQUARE
means of determining
various gene combination
possibilities and
probabilities
PUNNETT
SQUARE
STEP 1
determine the symbols
to represent traits.
write them on your paper.
(T= tall; t= short)
PUNNETT SQUARE
STEP 2
determine the genotype
of the parents. write
them down.
PUNNETT SQUARE
STEP 3
determine the possible
gametes from each parent.
write them down.
PUNNETT SQUARE
STEP 4
set up and work cross
PUNNETT SQUARE
STEP 5
re-read question and
clearly state the answer.
LAW OF
INDEPENDENT
ASSORTMENT
suggests that different,
segregated traits are
independently assorted
to offspring
DIHYBRID
CROSS
a cross between two
parents that accounts
for two different genes.
-these genes seperate
independently
GENE LINKAGE
-all genes on the same
chromosome are "linked" together
-some are inherited together
-ex: crossing over
SEX LINKAGE (THOMAS HUNT)
fly eyes
FLY EYES 1
crossed a true red eyed
fly with a true white eyed fly.
-results: all 4000 (first filial)
offspring had red eyes
FLY EYES 2
crossed two of the offspring
(first filial)
-results: 3000 red
1000 white
FLY EYES: OVERALL RESULTS
2000 red female
1000 red male
1000 white male
1000 white female
"X" LINKAGE
-a trait carried on the x
-males: xy
-females:xx
-genes for testosterone
carried on the y
-baldness is caused
by a recessive trait (x linked)
MULTIPLE ALLELES
genes that have more than
two allele forms (traits)
ex: human blood types
BLOOD TYPE
"A" is determined by the
absence of "A" or "B"
proteins (antigens) found
in red blood cells
BLOOD TYPE CONT.
each antigen has its own
antibody: a protein that
reacts in foreign particles.
BLOOD TYPE CONT.
each A,B,O blood group
consists of two alleles