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56 Cards in this Set

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ENERGY
The ability to do work
1. Potential Energy
2. Kinetic Energy
3. Chemical Energy:
4. Activation Energy: Small amount of energy required to start a chemical reaction.
POTENTIAL ENERGY
Potential energy is the stored energy of position possessed by an object.
KINETIC ENERGY
The energy of motion.
An object which has motion
has kinetic energy.
Two variables:
the mass (m) of the object
and the speed (v) of the object
CHEMICAL
ENERGY
Potential Energy related to the breaking and forming of chemical bonds
ACTIVATION ENERGY
The minimum energy necessary for a specific chemical reaction to occur. The activation energy of a reaction is usually denoted by Ea.
PHYSICAL CHANGE
1. A change in the physical
state of a substance.
2. The substance can
be retrieved.
3. Caused by latent
heat energy.
CHEMICAL
CHANGE
1. Process where matter is changed from one substance to another.
2. Cannot be retrieved.
3. Described in a chemical equation
HCl + NaOH -----H2O=NaCl
"reactants" "products"
(left side reactants)
(right side products)
EXOTHERMIC REACTION
Temperature increase
1. Energy is released from chemical bonds.
2. Energy "exits the equation."
EX:
ENDOTHERIMC REACTION
1. Energy is absorbed by the reaction.
2. Energy goes "Endo" the equation.
3. Temperature decrease
a. ____________________________
(Energy enters)
LAW OF
CONSERVATION
ENERGY
1. Energy can't be created or destroyed
2. Can be change from a more useful form to a less useful form.
LAW OF CONSERVATION OF MATTER
The type and number of atoms must be the same on both sides of the equation
ORGANIC MOLECULES
1. Molecules made by living things.
2. Structural formula - shows
arrangements of atoms
3. Large carbon chains
*All organic molecules must have
Carbon and Hydrogen
WHAT KIND OF
MOLECULE MUST
HAVE CARBON &
HYDROGEN?
Organic Molecules
WHAT KIND OF MOLECULE IS MADE UP OF LIVING THINGS?
Organic Molecule
WHAT KIND OF MOLECULES HAVE LARGE CARBON CHAINS?
Organic Molecules
WHAT ARE THE
ORGANIC
MOLECULE TYPES?
-Carbohydates (sugars)
-Lipids (Fats)
-Proteins
-Nucleic Acids (DNA)
CARBOHYDRATES
-Sugars
-Made of C,H+O/1:2:1 ratio
-Used for energy and some structure in plants
-classified by degree if complexity
WHAT ARE MONOSACCHARIDES?
Organic Molecule (Carbohydrates)
-"ose" (siffix) - sugar
-quick, ready energy
-3-7 carons/skeleton
-EX: Gluclose
WHAT ARE DISACCHARIDES?
Two Monosaccharides chemically bonded
WHAT ARE TWO TYPES OF CARBOHYDRATES?
Monosaccharides
Disaccharides
WHAT KIND OF MOLECULE TYPE IS:
CARBOHYDRATES
Organic Molecule
WHAT KIND OF MOLECULE TYPE IS:
LIPIDS (FATS)
Organic Molecule
WHAT KIND OF MOLECULE TYPE IS:
PROTEINS
Organic Molecule
WHAT KIND OF MOLECULE TYPE IS:
NUCLEIC ACIDS (DNA)
Organic Molecule
WHAT IS AN
EXAMPLE OF
A CARBOHYDRATE?
Glucose
DEHYDRATION SYNTHESIS
(Anabolism)
Two monos combine to form a disaccharide
(1 H2O molecule is released)
EX: Sucrose
WHAT IS AN EXAMPLE OF DEHYDRATION SYNTHESIS?
Sucrose
HYDROLYSIS
(CATABOLISM)
a. H2O is added to a large sugar
b. Chemical bond is broken forming two monosacharides.
C. Opposite of Dehydration Synthesis
WHAT IS THE OPPOSITE OF
DEHYDRATION SYNTHESIS?
Hydrolysis
WHAT IS ANABOLISM?
Dehydration
Synthesis
WHAT IS
CATABOLISM?
Hydrolysis
WHAT IS CALLED WHEN YOU ADD H2O TO A LARGE SUGAR?
Hydrolysis
WHAT MOLECULE IS RELEASED DURING DEHYDRATION SYNTHESIS?
H2O
POLYSACCHARIDES
The long chains of bonded monosaccharides.
IN POLYSACCHARIDES, WHAT DOES THE TOP FLAG INDICATE?
Alphabonds
IN POLYSACCHARIDES, WHAT DOES THE BOTTOM FLAG INDICATE?
Betabonds
WHAT IS THE LONG
CHAINS OF BONDED
MONOSACCHARIDES
CALLED?
Polysaccharides
ALPHABONDS
Monosaccharides that are used by the body.
BETABONDS
Monosaccharides that are
not used by the body.
-Digested
-fiber
WHAT ARE THE
THREE TYPES OF
POLYSACCHARIDES?
Starch
Cellulose
Glycogen
WHAT MONOSACCHARIDES ARE USED BY THE BODY?
Alphabonds
WHAT MONOSACCHARIDES ARE NOT USED BY THE BODY?
Betabonds
WHAT ARE THE
USES OF
POLYSACCHARIDES?
-Starch
-Glycogen
-Cellulose
STARCH
A Use of Polysaccharide.
Temporary food storage in plants (Glucose) (Potatoes)
GLYCOGEN
A Use of Polysaccharide.
Temporary food storage
in the liver (Glucose)
CELLULOSE
A Use of Polysaccharide.
Cell wall in plants. Used for structure.
(Glucose)
LIPIDS
Fats and oils that do not dissolve in water.
a. C, H, O
b. Concentrated food storage
c. Animals - fats
d. Plants - Oils and waxes
e. Made of one glycerol + 3 fatty acids molecules (Triglycerides)
WHAT IS MADE OF 3 FATTY ACIDS AND ONE GLYCEROL MOLECULE?
Lipids
WHAT MOLECULES ARE
FATS AND OILS THAT
DON'T DISSOLVE IN
WATER?
Lipids
FATTY ACID TYPES
Trans Fats (Can kill)
- Saturated Fat
- Unsaturated Fat
WHAT IS AN EXAMPLE OF SATURATED FATS?
Butter or Lard
SATURATED FATS
-Solid at room temperature
-Butter or Lard
-"H"s block the carbon chain from being digested.
- Clog arteries & kill
UNSATURATED FATS
Double bonds allow easy digestion of bonds and release energy
PROTEINS
Made from Amino Acids
C,H,O,N
Used for structure,
hormones, Enzymes
Peptide bond-
the bond between
amino acids by
dehydration synthesis
PEPTIDE BOND
(PROTEINS) The bond between amino acids by dehydration synthesis
AMINO ACID STRUCTURE
Amino Acid Structure: