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77 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Explain the difference between axial and apendicular skeleton.
axial- head, neck, trunk- 80 bones
apendicular- appendiges, girdles- 126 bones.
Total number of bones in the human skeleton
206
Where is the yellow marrow produced? What is stored in it?
medullary canal; lipids
Where is red marrow produced? What is found in it?
epiphysis; RBC, WBC, platelets
What is another name for the growth plate?
Epiphysial plate
What is the term used to describe the shaft of the bone?
diaphysis
Where is spongy bone located?
epiphysis
Where is compact bone located?
diaphysis
What is the fibrous connective tissue that surrounds the bone?
periosteum
The point where the ends of the shafts meet.
metaphysis
WHat is another name for a soft spot?
fontanel
Where does primary ossification begin, and at what age?
shaft od diaphysis. starts 5th or 6th week of embryonic development.
Where does secondary ossification begin?
epiphysis; complete at birth
Range of motion:
Where you increase angle between bones.
extension
Range of motion:Where you decrease angle between bones.
flexion
Range of motion:
A forward motion.
protraction
Range of motion:
A backward motion.
retraction
Range of motion:
circular movement.
circumduction
Range of motion:
turning of axis.
rotation
Range of motion:
lying on stomach with palms down.
pronation
Range of motion:
lying on back with my palms facing forward.
supinations
Range of motion:
a movement that raises the bone.
elevation
Range of motion:
a movement that lowers the bone.
depression
Range of motion:
away from midline.
abduction
Range of motion:
towards midline.
adduction
Range of motion:
a movement that bends the part beyond normal.
hyperextension
Range of motion:
a movement that flexes the foot towards the sole.
plantar flexion
4 pairs of sinuses from superior to inferior.
frontal, ethmoid, spheniod, maxillary
a mature bone cell?
osteocyte
immature bone cell that undergoes mitosis.
osteoblast
a bone cell that breaks down old bone tissue?
osteoclast
an unspecialized bone cell that undergoes mitotic change?
osteoproginator cell
another name for bone tissue?
osseous
4 functions of the skeletal system.
movement, protection, attachment for muscles, mineral storage, blood cell production, energy stoarge.
matrix that makes up bone tissue... what % is water, what % is protien, what % is calcium and phosphorous?
water- 25%, protein-25%, calcium and phosphorous- 50%
what is the difference between intramembraneous and endochondral bones?
flat; round, long bones
what 2 primary menieral salts do bones store?
calcium and phosphorous
list 3 things that control bone growth?
genetics, hormones, diet, mineral storage, lack of vitamin d
how does bone grow in diameter?
lying down new bone tissue
where/how do bones grow in length?
mitotic division and epiphysial plate
what is a break in the bone called?
fracture
what is ongoing replacement of old bone tissue with new?
remodeling
what is mesenchymal tissue?
embryonic tissue
what connects muscle to bone?
tendon
what connects bone to bone?
ligaments
what type of synovial joint?hip or shoulder?
ball and socket
what type of synovial joint?
thumb?
saddle
what type of synovial joint?
elbow?
hinge
what type of synovial joint?
wrist?
gliding
what type of synovial joint?
atlas and axis?
pivot
what type of synovial joint?
between metacarpals and phalanges?
chondoloid
when you have a fracture, bone goes through 4 steps. list them in order.
forms hematoma, then soft calus, then bony callus, remodeling
green stick fractures occur in adults or children?
children
what does articulate describe?
to move with
what occurs in calcification?
minerals are deposited in collagen
what gives bones its tensile strength? hardness?
collagen fibers
# of bones:vertebral column.
26
# of bones:
cranial/facial.
22
# of bones:
middle ear?
6
# of bones:
hyoid?
1
# of bones:
thoracic cage.
25
# of bones:
pectoral girdle.
4
# of bones:
upper limbs
60
# of bones:
pelvic girdle
2
# of bones:
lower limbs.
60
difference between true and false ribs?
true- connected to sternum by hyaline cartilage
false- connected to eachother first, then connects to sternum
what does foramen mean?
opening
increase in production of GH can lead to what syndrome?
acronegaly
space or cavity in bone is called what?
sinuses
3 differences between an adult and child skeleton.
suture lines are wide in child.
space between cranial bone- fontanels in child.
childs bones are softer.
smaller nasal cavity in child.
porminent forehead.
larger orbitals in child
what is a suture line?
fibrous connective tissue- cranial bones
what is the purpose of the foramen skeleton?
nerves to travel through, ligaments to travel through, and muscles to travel to.
what allows head to pivot?
atlas and axis
functions of sinus cavities?
reduce weight of skull; warm, filter, and moisturize air; help with voice resonance.
how many curves are there in a spine?
4
tissue that lines medullary canal?
endosteum
the only bone that does now articulate with any other bone in the body.
hyoid