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37 Cards in this Set

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A leukocyte that has granules in its cytoplasm.
A non-granular white blood cell. Lymphocytes and monocytes.
A muscular double pump.
Epicardium (visceral pericardium).
Is the vesceral layer of the serous parcardium.
Parietal Pericardium.
The tough outermost layer of the pericardium that is attached to the diaphragm adn the sternum.
Pectinate Muscle.
Any of the prominent ridges of atrial myocardium located on the inner surfaces of much of the right atrium and of both auricles.
The auricle, or pinna, is what most people call the ear--the shell-shaped projection that surrounds the opening of the external auditory canal.
Coronary Sinus.
A venous sinus that opens into the right atrium of the heart and serves to drain the coronary veins.
A short sinus receiving most of the veins of the heart; empties into the right atrium
Moderator Band.
One of the trabeculae carneae in the right ventricle of the heart; it carries part of the right branch of the A-V bundle from the septum to the anterior papillary muscle on the opposite wall of the ventricle.
Tunica Intima.
The innermost tunic of a vessel, which might be considered to be in "intimate" contact with the blood in the lumen.
Tunica Media.
The middle tunic consists primarily of circularly arranged sheets of smooth muscle fibers, between which lie circular sheets of elastin and collagen fibrils.
Tunica External (Adventitia).
This tunic is a layer of connective tissue that contains many collagen and alastic fibers. Functionally, the tunic adventitious protects the vessel, further strenghtens its wall, and anchors the vessel to surrounding structures.
Elastic Arteries.
Are the largest arteries. Includes the aorta and its major branches. High elastin content dampens surge of blood pressure.
Muscular Arteries.
Lie distal to the elastic arteries. Includes most of the named arteries. Tunica media is thick. Unique features: Internal and external elastic laminae.
Varicose Veins.
When the valves in veins weaken and fail, the result is varicose veins, in which veins are twisted and swell with large amounts of pooled blood and the venous drainage is slowed considerably.
Precapillary Sphincter.
Smooth muscle cells which wrap around the root of each true capillary where it leaves the metarteriole. It also regulate the flow of blood to the tissue.
Lymphatic Capillary.
Are larger than blood capillaries and very irregularly shaped. They begin as blind-ending tubes in connective tissue. Temporary openings in the endothelial lining of the lymph capillaries also allow the entry of larger particles into the lymph capillaries. Lymph capillaries merge to form Lymph collecting vessels.
Specialized lymph capillaries present in intestinal mucosa that absorb digested fat and deliver chyle (fatty lymph) to the blood.
Collecting Vessels.
Lymph capillaries merge to form
Lymph collecting vessels which are larger and form valves but otherwise appear similar to lymph capillaries. Finally, impeded lymph drainage is one of the problems associated with surgery which requires the removal of lymph nodes and which thereby interrupts the lymph collecting vessels.
Eventually the lymph collecting vessels merge to form Lymph ducts which contain one or two layers of smooth muscle cells in their wall (some textbooks call this layer the tunica media of lymph vessels). They also form valves. The walls of the lymph ducts are less flexible in the region of the attachment of the valves to the wall of the duct, which may give a beaded appearance to the lymph ducts. The largest lymph duct of the body, the thoracic duct, drains lymph from the lower half and upper left quadrant of the body and empties the lymph.
After leaving the lymph nodes, the largest lymphatic collecting vessels converege ot for lym trunks. these trunks drain large lareas of the body and are large enough to be found by a skilled dissector.
Largest lymphoid organ; provides for lymphocyte proliferation, immune surveillance and response, and blood-cleansing functions.
Bilobed organ that secretes hormones (thymosin and thymopoitin) that cause T lymphocytes to beomce immunocompetent. The size of the thymus varies with age.
B Cells.
B cells produce plasma cells, which secrete antibodies to immobilize antigens.
External Respiration.
Gas exchange between the lungs and the blood.
Transport of Respiratory Gases.
Transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the lungs and tissues via blood.
Conducitn Zone.
The conducitn gzone includes all other respiratory passageways, which serve as fairly rigid conduits that carry air to the sites of gas exchange. The sturcutes of the conducting zone also filter, humidify, and warm the incoming air. thus, the air reaching the lungs contains much less dust than it did when it entered the nose and is warm and damp.
The nasal septum separates the left and right nasal airway.
External Nares.
Air arrives in the respiratory tract through the external nares.
Lies posterior to the nasal cavity, inferior to the sphenoid, and superior to the level of the soft palate. Strickly an air passageway and is lined and pseudostratisfied columnar epithelium. Closes during swallowing to prevent food from entering the nasla cavity.
Extends inferiorly from the level of the soft palate to the epiglottis; opens to the oral cavity via an archway called the fauces. Serves a sa common passageway for food and air.
Serves as a common passageway for food and air. Lies posterior to the upright epiglottis. Extends to the layrnx, where the respiratory and digestive pathways diverge.
Parasanal Sinuses.
The nasal cavity is surroundded by a ring of air-filled cavities called paransal sinuses located in the frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid, and maxillary bones.
Terminal Bronchiole.
The last portion of the nonrespiratory conducting airway, which subdivides into respiratory bronchioles.
Respiratory Bronchiole.
The smallest subdivision of a bronchiole, connecting a terminal bronchiole to an alveolar duct.
Alveolar Ducts.
The respiratory bronchioles lead into alveolar ducts, straight ducts whose walls consist almost entirely of alveoli. The alveolar ducts then lead into terminal cluster of alveoli called alveolar sacs.
The largest artery in the human body, the aorta originates from the left ventricle of the heart and brings oxygenated blood to all parts of the body in the systemic circulation.
The aorta is an elastic artery, and as such is quite distensible. When the left ventricle contracts to force blood into the aorta, the aorta expands. This stretching gives the potential energy that will help maintain blood pressure during diastole, as during this time the aorta contracts passively.