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34 Cards in this Set

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What are the advantage of the nervous system vs. the endocrine system?
The nervous system provides rapid response to stimuli and this is because of the electrochemical communication between cells.
Endocrine system involves...
chemical control
Nervous system involves...
nervous control; electrochemical control
What are four components involved in nverous response to stimuli?
reception, transmission (conduction of an impusle), intergration (processing of an impulse), and action
What are four specialized cells that are corelated to 4 components of nervous response to stimuli?
receptor cells, conductor cells, interneurons (processor cells), and efector cells (response cells)
Stimuli
changes in the environment
Nervous system
Organization of neurons and supporting cells that take in info, integrate it, and respond
Neural signaling
communications by neurons
What is the function of receptor cells?
They detect (recognize) a stimulus and pass on info (impulses to other cells.
What is the function of conductor cells?
They convey (carry) impulses along a nervous pathway
What are two major types of conductor cells?
sensory (afferent) neurons and motor (efferent) neurons
What is the function of sensory (afferent) neurons?
(conductor cells that) carry info TOWARDS the CNS
What is the function of motor (efferent) neurons?
(conductor cells that) carry info AWAY from the CNS (to effector cells)
What is the function of interneurons (processor cells) (association neurons)?
They collect and process (analyze) info recieved from many cells to produce a single output
What are the two types of info an interneuron can recieve?
Excitatory or inhibitory
What are examples of effectors?
muscle and gland cells
Interneurons act as "what" between sensory neurons and motor neurons?
bridges; middlemen
Where are interneurons located?
In the central nervous system
What is the function of an effector cell?
they perform or carry out a task
Effectors are usually neurons, ture or false?
FALSE
What are two other names for neurons?
nerve fiber and nerve cell
What are the three main components of a neuron?
1.cell body 2.numerous dendrites 3.an axon
What is the function of a neuron?
(a cell specialized for) carries impulses (electrochemical signals) along its length
Neurons are the longest or shortest cell in the body?
Longest
What are glial cell(s) (pl. neuroglia)?
they are accessory cells to the nervous system (CNS)
What is the function of neuroglia?
support and nourish neurons
What are four major types of neuroglia?
microglial, oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, and ependymal cells
When "nerve" is used alone in a speach, what does it refer to?
tissue = a group of cells
What is a ganglion (pl. ganglia)?
a cluster of nerve cell bodies
Where are ganglia typically located?
Outside the CNS
What is the function of a microglial cell?
to support nerve tissue and to protect it by engulfing bacteria
What is the fuction of oligodendrocites?
to produce myelin (within the CNS)
What is the function of astrocytes?
to support, regulate concentrations of ions and nutrients (within the CNS)
What is the function of and ependymal cell?
to form linings for support in the nervous system