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46 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What have some biologists renamed Kingdom Monera
They renamed this kingdom to Prokaryota
What are some of the habitats that organisms in kingdom monera can survive in?
Living on dust particles 20,000 feet above earth, extreme temperatures, and radiation. Some even in the water core of a nuclear reactor.
Define Pathogen
An organism that causes disease
Describe the functions of the capsule
The capsule helps the bacterium adhere to surfaces and offers a protective layer which tends to defer infection-fighting agents.
Describe the functions of the cell wall
The cell wall holds the contents of the bacterium together, regulates the amount of water a bacterium can absorb and holds the cell into one of three shapes
What are the three basic shapes of a bacterium?
Spherical aka coccus - Rod-shaped aka bacillus - helical aka spirillum
What are false-color images
Images that have been taken with an electron microscope. Because it uses electron beams it can not show any color.
Describe the functions of the plasma membrane.
It protects the interior of the cell by sensing the nature of the chemicals in the surroundings and then determining whether or not they can enter the cell.
What is the plasma membrane made up of?
It is made up of certain chemicals called phospholipids and other chemicals called proteins. They regulate what the bacterium takes in from the outside world.
Describe the functions of Cytoplasm
Cytoplasm supports the DNA and the ribosomes.
What does DNA do
DNA holds all the info required to make a mass of chemicals a living entity.
What do ribosomes do
Ribosomes are chemical factories. they make special chemicals known as proteins.
Many (but not all) bacteria have finbriae. What are these used for?
They are typically used for grasping. They grasp surfaces or they grasp other bacteria as a part of reproduction. If they're used for reproduction, they are called sex pili.
What are sex pili?
Fimbriae that are used to grasp other bacteria as a part of reproduction.
What is locomotion?
Moving bacteria from one place to another
Locomotion is accomplished with what?
The flagellum
What are the three parts of the flagellum?
the filament, the hook, and the basal body.
How does the flagellum move the bacterium?
the filament attaches to the hook which slides onto a rod. through chemical reactions, the hook spins and the filament moves the bacterium.
what does UM stand for and how long is it?
Micrometer - 1 millionth of a meter.
Define Saprophyte
An organism that feeds on dead matter
Define Parasite
An organism that feeds on a living host
What are the means by which autotrophic bacteria manufacture their food?
Photosynthesis which uses the energy from sunlight and certain chemicals and chemosynthesis. In chemosynthesis, the bacteria promote chemical reactions which release energy. The entergy is used with other chemicals to produce energy.
Define digestion
The process of breaking down food into small molecules that our bodies can use.
Define Aerobic Organism
An organism that requires oxygen
Define Anaerobic organism
An organism that does not require oxygen
What is the most popular form of asexual reproduction?
Binary Fission
Describe the steps of asexual reproduction in bacteria
1. The DNA loop copies itself. 2. The new DNA loop attaches to the plasma membrane near the origional. 3. The cell wall elongates. 4. Once the strands of DNA are seperated, the new cell wall material and plasma membrane begin to grow. 5. Two different bacterium exist.
When do Mutations occur in asexual reproduction?
When the DNA of the parent is not copied correctly
Define Steady State
A state in which members of a population die as quickly as new members are born.
Define Exponential Growth
Populations growth that is unhindered because of the abundance of resources for an ever-increasing population.
Define Logistic Growth
Population Growth that is controlled by limited resources
What is the S-Shaped curve called?
Sigmoidal Curve
What is Genetic Recombination
Bacteria exchanging genetic info in order to increase the genetic diversity of the population.
What are the three ways Genetic Recombination can occur?
Conjugation, Transformation, and Transduction.
Define Conjugation
A temporary union of two organisms for the purpose of DNA transfer
Define Plasmid
A small, circular section of extra DNA that confers one or more traits to a bacterium and cane reproduced separately from the main bacterial genetic code.
Define Transformation
The transfer of a DNA segment from a nonfunctional donor cell to that of a functional recipient cell.
Define Transduction
The process in which infection by a virus results in DNA being transferred from one bacterium to another.
Define Endospore
The DNA and other essential parts of a bacterium coated with several hard layers.
List the most common forms of bacterial colonies that exist.
Diplococcus (2 circles) Tetracoccus (4 circles)
Streptococcus (7 circles)
Staphylococcus (Weird one)
Diplobacillus (2 rod like)
Streptobacillus (Other rod like)
Who was the man who was studying bacteria in the late 1800s?
Hans Christian Gram
What stain did he develop?
the GRAM stain.
Learn the partial classification of Kingdom Monera
Learn the partial classification of Kingdom Monera
What does the six kingdom system do?
It splits kingdom Monera into Archaebacteria and Eubacteria
Define Strains
Organisms from the same species that have markedly different traits.
What are the conditions that must be present for bacteria to grow?
Moisture, Moderate Temperature, Nutrition, Darkness, and the proper amount of oxygen.