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121 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Biology
study of life
Organism
any living thing
HOMEOstasis
regulation of an organisms internal enviroment
Meabolism
All the chemical reactions that occur in an organism
Scientific method
common steps to solve problems
Scientific method
common steps to solve problems
Scientific method
common steps to solve problems
Hypothesis
testable explenation for a question or problem
experiment
procedure that tests a hypotesis by the process of collecting information under conrolled conditions.
observations
use our senses, which lead us to questions
control group
standard,all conditons are kept the same
test group
all condition are kept the same except the condition being tested
Idependent variable
condition being tested
Dependent Variable
second condition observed which is a result of the change
conclusion
evaluation of the hypotesis based on data
Quantitative data
numerical data
Descriptive Data
observational data
Meter, Liter, Gram
basic units of length, liquid, and mass
Name the 5 characteristics of life
1 Ability to respond to the enviroment
2 Use and obtain energy
3 Reproduce
4 organization
5 grow and develop
atom
smallest part of an elemnt which still reatins the properties of that elemnt
chemical formula
symbols written together to show what atoms have bonded together
molecule
atoms stuck together
Ion
an atom ( or group of atoms ) that gain or looses electrons and has a charge and reatin their individual properties
polar
attracted to water, has a charge
products
result of the reactants
reactants
elements which combine
Hydrogen Bond
a weak bond formed between hydrogen and another substance
pH
a measure of how acidic or basic a solution is
Carbohydrates
organic compound made of C H O
Lipids
organic molecules that have a LARGE proportion of C-H bonds and fewer O atoms
Proteins
Large organic polymer which is made of Amino Acids

C H O N
Nucleic Acids
complex polymer of neucleotides
capillary action
water creeps up tubes
chemical equation
expresses what happens in a chemical reaction
Nonpolar
no charge
Organic Compound
compound with carbon
Inorganic Compound
compound without Carbon
enzyme
regulation of cell function
enzyme substrate complex
temporary combination of the enzyme and substarte
Active Transport
agains diffusion. energy required. lower concentration to higher conventration
contractile vacuole
a structure in some unicellualr organisms, that live in hypotonic engiroment, it expells excess water
enzyme 2
biological catalysts, reduce amount of energy needed
diffusion
the net movement of molecules from an area of higher concentraition to lower concentration
endocytosis
process by which a cell surrounds and takes IN material from it's enviroment
fluid mosaic model
current model of plasma membrane
Hypertonic solution
water leaves the cell
Hypotonic solution
water enters the cell
Isotonic solution
dynamic equlibrium. equal
osmosis
diffusion of water through a selectivly permeable membrane
passive transport
no energy needed , diffusion, osmosis, facilitated diffusion
phospholipid
two fatty acid chains and a head
selective permeability
selective material pass in and out of the membrane
turgor pressure
pressure that exsistis in a cell
ATP
Adenosine Triphosphate
ADP
Adenosine Diphosphate
Photosynthesis
plants take in light energy and make glucose and CO2
Cell respiration
process in which glucose and oxygen make ATP
Light reactions
"photo" part. makes energy for Calvin Cycle ; occurs in the thylakoid
Calvin Cycle
form clucose; occurs in the stroma; synthesis
ETC Electron Transport Chain
during the light cycle electrons travel down releasing energy
Carbon Fixation
Inorganic Carbon is taken and made into CO2
Glycolysis
splitting of glucose
Aerobic Repiration
repiration with O
Anaerobic Respiration
respiration without oxygen
Citric Acid Cycle/ Krebs Cycle
series of chemicl reations in the mitochondria in which high energy elesctrons are formed
Fermentation
Anaerobic Respiration; Latic Acid and Alcoholic
Fermentation
Anaerobic Respiration; Latic Acid and Alcoholic
Lactic Acid Fermentaion
that has lactic acid as an end product. Produces electron carrying molecule which enable glycolysis to continue;humans and animals
Alcoholic Germenation
ethanol and CO2 as waster products; produces electron carrying molecule
cell
smalles living organism that still maintains the 5 characteris Basic unit of life
Rober Hooke
English . saw dead cork cells thought they looked like monk's cells
Anton vo Leeuwenhoek
First to see live cells. developed better micropscopes "wee beasties" in pond water
Cell Theory
1 All livng things are made of cells
2 all cells come from preexsisting cells
3. cells are the basic unit of life
compound light micropscope
passes light through the object
prokarote
BACTERIA; a cell lacking true organelles
Eukarote
a cell that has a true membrane binding organelles
Plasma Membrane
seperates and controls what goes in and our
cytoplasm
jell like substance
Pili
velcro, sticks to things like the back of the throat
Cell Wall
provides support. only in plants
Cell Wall
provides support. only in plants
Cell Wall
provides support. only in plants
Nucleus
the brain controls cell activity . DNA is in here
ER
transportaion of materails thru cells; ribosomes here
Rough ER
with ribosomes
Smooth ER
without Ribsomes
Ribosomes
where proteins are made
Golgi Apparatus
packages and exports products in vesicles
Vacuole
stores stuff
Lysosome
helps with digestion
Mitochondria
energy is made here. Ribbon ike has a high surfacer area like a tissue box
chloroplast
plant cells; photosynthesis occurs here
Cilia
hair used for movement
Flagella
whip like tail used for movement
Organelle
a structure that has a membrane a round it in EURKARYOTIC cells
specialized cell
a cell that performs a cerain function
Heredity
passing on of chromosome from parent to offspring
Genetics
study of heredity
Gregor Mendel
Austrain pea plant dude
Gamete
Haploid sex cell
Phenotype
way an organism looks
Genotypes
genetic make up of an organism
Homozygous
2 allesles are the same
Heterozygous
2 allesles are differnt
Punnet Square
used to show possible offspring outcomes
Law of Segragation
each gamete goes on 1 block; alleles from parents sort into seperate gametes
Homologuous chromosemes
smimilar' paired chromosome with genes for the smae trait
diploid
2 copies of each chromosome
haploid
1 copy of each chromosome
meiosis
1 diploid cell end with 4 haploid cells
cell cycle
sequence of growth and division
Interphase
growth and metabolism' contriubutes to homeostasis copies it's DNA and mkes other organelles
Mitosis
pmat... cell division
chromatin
uncolied DNA
chromosome
coiled DNA
sister chromatid
identical strands of DNA connected at the centromere
centriole
form spindle... only in animal cells
spindle
made of microbtubes; extend across the cell
prophase
nuclear membrane dissapears; spindle forms
metaphase
chromosomes line up down the middle of the spindle
telophase
begins when chromosomes are at the poles; spindle breaks down and chromatids uncoil