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38 Cards in this Set

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Cells arise through the division of preexisting cells. There are two types of cell division, ______ and _______
Meiosis

Mitosis
Both forms of cell division are usually accompanied by ________, in which the cytoplasm of the cell divides into two distinct daughter cells
Cytokinesis
Meiosis leads to the production of _______
Gametes (egg and sperm)
Daughter cells have half the amount of genetic material as the parent cell. They have one set of chromosomes (n) and are defined as _______
Haploid
Mitosis leads to the production of all other cell types, referred to as ________ cells
Somatic
Somatic cells have two sets of chromosomes (2n) and are defined as _____
Diploid
_________ contain a single long double helix of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) wrapped around proteins
Chromosomes
A _______ is a section of DNA that encodes a specific protein or RNA
Gene
The purpose of mitosis is to distribute chromosomes to daughter cells during cell division. Therefore each chromosome is replicated prior to mitosis. Each DNA copy in a replicated chromosome is called a ________
Chromatid
Chromatids are joined together at a region called the _________
Centromere
Chromatids from the same chromosome are called _________ chromosomes
Sister
As mitosis starts, _________ (uncondensed DNA) condenses to form chromosomes. It changes from long, thin filaments into compact structures that can be moved around the cell efficiently
Chromatin
Growing cells cycle between a dividing phase called the ________ and a non-dividing phase called ________
Mitotic phase (M)

Interphase
The ______ is the sequence of events from the formation of a eukaryotic cell through the duplication if its chromosomes to the time it undergoes cell division (cytokinesis)
Cell cycle
When does chromosome replication take place
Chromosome replication occurs during Interphase and not during the M phase
The stage in which DNA replication occurs is called the _______
Synthesis (S) phase
The are a total of four phases in the cell cycle: M phase and an Interphase consisting of __,___, and ___
G1, S, and G2 phases
________ phases allow the cell to grow large enough and synthesize enough organelles to ensure the daughter cells will be normal in size and function
Gap
Interphase also include two gap phases, during which no DNA synthesis occurs.

The first gap,_____ occurs before the S phase

The second gap _____ occurs between S phase and mitosis
G1 Phase

G2 Phase
What happens in G1 phase?
The cell grows, carries out basic functions and produces the molecules needed to build new organelles and other components need if it divides
What happens during S phase
Enzymes replicate (duplicate) the cells genetic material and repair damaged DNA. By the end of S phase, each chromosome consists of two identical sister chromatids. In animal cells, the centrosomes are also duplicated
What happens during G2 phase
The cell continues to grow, but mainly prepares to divide by producing the proteins that will coordinate movement of chromosomes during mitosis. Also the DNA becomes more condensed
Eukaryotic chromosomes consist of DNA associated with _______ proteins
Histone
In eukaryotes this DNA-protein material is called
Chromatin
After replication during S phase each chromosome consists of two genetically identical sister ____ attached to the ______
Chromatids

Centromere
During _________, the two sister chromatids separate to form independent chromosomes, and one copy of each chromosome goes to each of the two daughter cells. As a result each daughter cell receives a copy of the genetic information that is contained in each chromosome
Mitosis
Mitosis (M phase) is a continuous process with five subphases based on specific events
-Prophase
-Prometaphase
-Metaphase
-Anaphase
-Telophase
What happens during prophase
During prophase, chromosomes condense and first become visible in the light microscope
The __________, made of microtubules called spindle fibers, forms a microtubule organizing center
Mitotic spindle
_________ microtubulese push the poles of each cell away from each other during mitosis

________ microtubules pull chromosomes to the poles of the cell during mitosis
Polar

Kinetochore
In animal cells, the microtubule organizing center is a ______ - a structure that conatins a pair of _____
Centrosome

Centrioles
What happens during prometaphase
The nuclear envelope breaks down

The nucleolus disappears

Kinetochore microtubules from each mitotic spindle attach to one of the sister chromatids of each chromosome
Kinetochore microtubules from each mitotic spindle attach to one if the sister chromatids of each chromosome.

Attachment occurs in the centromere region ar the ________
Kinetochore
What happens during metaphase
During metaphase, the formation of the mitotic spindle is completed

Motor proteins on the kinetochore microtubules pull each chromosome in opposite directions, causing the chromosomes to line up in the middle of the cell
The imaginary plane formed by this is called the ________
Metaphase plate
What happens during anaphase
During anaphase, centromeres split ans sister chromatids are pulled by the spindle fibers towards opposite poles of the cell
As soon as they are no longer attached at the centomere, sister chromatids become
daughter chromosomes
What happens during telophase
A new nuclear envelope begins to form around each set of chromosomes

The mitotic spindle disintegrates

The chromosomes begin to decondense

(When two independent nuclei have formed, mitosis is complete