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88 Cards in this Set

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A term for maxim stability
equalibrium
Why is it improtant to know if the deltaG gappened without help?
negative deltaG is less than 0

H must decrease

Ts must increase

Processes that have a positive or zero deltaG are never spontaneous
The greater decrease in free energy means?
the greater amount of works that can be done
3 types of work a cell does
mechanical, transport, chemical
spontaneous
no input of energy
non-spontaneous
input of energy
What is the energy of the universe?
constant
closed system
isolated from its surroundings
open system
energy can be transferred between the sysem & its surroundings
organisms are ______ compared to the _______
low disorder

universe
what do cells create?
order
What do organisms create?
entropy
J. Willard Gibbs
1878

professor at Yale

free energy- symbolized by G
How can the results of catabolic reactions be used in anabolic reactions?
the energy should be stored and then used
Example of energy coupling
glucose yeilds glucose 6-phos
(product now has more energy)
What allows cells to release chemical energy from food molecules?
the structures & biochemical pathways
The energy that was stored of the organic moleculecan now do what?
do work of the cell
What happens as a reaction proceeds toward equalibrium?
the free energy of the mixture of reactants & products decreases
A process is spontaneous and can preform work when...?
it is moving toward equalibrium
Are organism open or closed?
open

absorb energy, light & release heat
What is the formula for the ATP cycle?
ADP + P yeilds ATP + H2o
Is metabolism as a whole ever at equalibrium?
no
Is ATP a renewable source?
yes
With help of specific _____, the cell is able to ______ the energy of ATP ______ directly to endergonic processes by transferring a _____ group from ATP to some other molecule, such as the reactant.
enzymes
couple
hydrolysis
phosphate
What is an example that uses ATP hydrolysis to heat the body
shivering
Each step of a metabolic pathway is _____ by a ____ _____
catalyzed
specific enzyme
What is another way to find deltaG?
deltaG = G(final state)-G(intial state)
deltaG formula
deltaG = deltaH - TdeltaS
cellular respiration
C6H12+ O2 YEILDS 6CO2 + 6H2O
What kind of pathways make it possible for Atp to be made?
Catabolic(exergonic)
Cellular Respiration
the break down of glucose
What allows this process to continue?
free energy
When does free energy increase?
When a reaction is somehow pushed away from equalibrium
Photosynthesis
takes energy from the sun
When the terminal phosphate bond is broken, what happens?
a molecule of inorganic phosphate leaves ATP, which becomes ADP
What does ATP contain?
adenine
ribose sugar
3 phosphate groups
what can the bonds between the phosphate groups of ATPs be broken down by?
hydrolysis
What happens once a cell reaches equalibrium?
it can do no work
How are organisms realated to energy?
transformers
system denotes to what?
the matter under study
Surroundings denotes to what?
rest od the universe
Polymerizations are .....?
anabolic 7 synth
Cellular respiration is....?
catabolic
the cells 3 kind of work are powered by....?
ATP hydrolysis
H

S

T

delta
Heat

Change in the system
entropy

absolute temperature in Kelvin
How do you tell if the deltaG is spontaneous?
they can be harnessed to do work
How do you main tain the lack of equalibrium?
the product of one reaction must become a reactant in the next
ATP has _____ _____ in relation to the products, _____ & ______.
high
energy
ADP
P
What can the value of deltaG help predict?
whether the process will be spontaneous
What is ATP responsible for and in most cases what does it do?
mediating most energy coupling

imediate source of energy that powers cellular work
The chemical reaction of the break down of ATP
ATP + H2O yeilds ADP + P
Why is Atp useful to the cell?
b/c the energy it releases on hydrolyzing a phosphate group is greater than the other forms of energy
______ is less stable than its ______ so the reaction occurs _______
ATP
products
spontaneously
What is the key to coupling ecergonic & endergonic reactions?
the formation of this phosphoylated intermediate, which is more reactive(less stable) that those that aren't
What does equalibrium mean in chemical reactions?
a point where the forward & Backward reactions occur at the same rate
What is the tendency to change to a higher state?
Unstable systems tend to change to become more stable
Pathways can have more that one starting what?
molecule
product
Metabolism as a whole manages the ______ and ______ resouces of the ______.
material
energy
cell
tonoplast
the membrane that encloses the central vacuole
Chromosomes
w/i the nucleus

DNA organized into discrete units

made up of chromotin
Chromatin
makes up each chromosome

a complex of proteins & DNA
nucleolus
a prominent structure w/i the nondividing nucleus

darkly stained
Ribosomes
particles made of ribosomal RNA & protein

cary out protein synthesis
vesicles
sacs made of membrane

transfer of membrane segments
glycoproteins
most secretory proteins

proteins that have carbohydrates covalently bonded to them
Golgi apparatus
products of the ER are modified & stored & then sent to other destination
phagocytosis
the engulfing smaller organisms or other food particles
contractile vacuoles
pump excess water out of the cell; maintaining the proper concentration of salts & other molecules
central vacuole
mature plant cells generally contain a large
Mitochondria
site of cellular respiration, the metabolic process that generates ATP by extracting energy from sugars, fats, & other feuls with the help of oxygen
Chloroplasts
found only in plants & algae sites of Photosynthesis
peroxisome
an oxidative organelle that is not part of the endomembrane system
cristae
the inner membrane is convoluted with infoldings
Mitochondrial Matrix
enclosed by the inner membrane the matrix contains many different enzymes as wellas the mitochondrial DNA & Ribosomes
plastids
a specialized member of a family of a closely related plant organelles
thylakoids
flattened, interconnected sacs
granum
each stack of thylakoids
stroma
the fluid outside the thylakoids
cytoskeleton
a network of fibers extending throughout the cytoplasm
motor proteins
the interaction of the cytoskeleton with proteins
Microtubules
thickest
microfilaments
actin filaments

thinnest
intermediate filaments
a componet of the cytoskeleton that includes all filaments intermediate in size b/w microtubules and microfilaments
centrosome
Material present in the cytoplasm, important during cell division; the microtubule organizing center
centrioles
A structure in an animal cell composed of cylinders of microtubule triblets arranged in a 9 + 0 patteren. An animal cell usually has a pair of centriles involved in cell division.
flagella
a long cellular appendage specialized for locomation
cilia
locomotion
dynein
a large contractile protein forming the side-arms of microtubule doublets in cilia flagella