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46 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The sum of all reactions that occurs in a living organism.
Is constantly supplied for cells to carry on all their cellular processes.
Organisims that are able to make their own food.
An organism that depends upon other organisms for food.
The process wherby simple sugars are formed from carbon dioxide and water in the presence of light and chloropyll. Takes place in the chloropyll.
A process whereby certain organisms obtain cellular energy from the breakdown of inorganic chemicals. The process of absorbing light energy and converting it into stored chemical energy.
A common simple sugar that is the by-procuct of photosynthesis.
Adenosine Triphosphate
A compound that serves as a temporary energy storage molecule in all cells. It is composed of adenosine (simple sugar and adenine) and three phosphates.
Adenosine Diphosphate
The molecule that is produced when ATP is split to yeild energy.
The green pigment of plant cells that is nessasary for photosynthesis.
Types of Chlorophyll
Chlorophyll "a" performs the photosynthesis and chlorophyll "b,c, and d" absorb wavelengths of light energy that aren't absorbed by chloropyll "a" and pass it to chloropyll "a" to be used.
The release of energy in the form of ATP from a food source. This takes place in the mitochondia.
The oxygen-requiring process of breaking down a food substance to obtain cellular energy. It can be compared to buring.
The process that doesn't require oxygen. Its end products are made by fermentation.
Melvin Calvin
Helped to determine the actual reaction occuring in the process of photosynthesis.
All the material inside the plasma membrane of a cell, excluding the nucleus. In this is where glycolysis occurs, which is the breakdown of glucose into pyruvates and the production of two ATP.
The first step of cellular respiration in which the breakdown of glucose into pyruvates and the production of two ATP.
Citric Acid Cycle
The second step of cellular respiration in which the pyruvic acid is converted to carbon dioxide, hydrogen, and electrons.
Hydrogen & Electron Transport System
The third step in which passes along electron to release energy and produce ATP.
The anaerobic breakdown of carbohydrates to pyruvic acid, then to alcohol and carbon dioxide or lactic acid.
The formation of alcohol and carbon dioxide from glucose; this is performed by yeast cells.
Lactic Acid
The formation of lactic acid from the glucose.
Deoxyribonucleic Acid
Contains the code used for protiens. It also forms Ribonucleic Acids (RNA) through transcription.
Ribonucleic Acid
The RNA molecule contains the code for a polypeptide chain of amino acids called messenger RNA (mRNA).
Messenger RNA
The mRNA carries the code from the DNA in the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm, where it is interprated. It contains the proper sequence of codons to be interpreted as a chain of amino acis.
Transger RNA
The tRNA have the amino acids attached to them and they bring individual amino acids to the ribosome for assembly into protiens.
Ribosomal RNA
The rRNA combines with various protiens to form ribosomes.
Sensor Strand
The sequence on the DNA from which the RNA is assembled.
The term for the "start" region in the sensor strand from which the enzyme begins building RNA.
A nonmembrane-bound organalle associated with protien formation.
A triplet of nucleotides that forms the code for a particular amino acid on messenger RNA.
Amino Acid
The basic building block of protien molecules.
An organic compound that is composed of amino acids.
The phase of metabolism that builds molecules and stores energy; the constructive part of metabolism.
The phase of metabolism which breaks down a molecule or releases energy; the destructive phase of metabolism.
Intercellular Digestion
The breakdown of substances within cells. The type of cellular digestion where enzymes, often supplied by lysosomes, breakdown the material in food vacuoles to soluble substances.
Extracellular Digestion
The breakdown of substances that occurs in spaces outside the cells such as within the stomach or intestine.
Optimal Point
The system parameters that work the best.
Optimal Range
The range in which your body tries to maintain.
Tolerance Range
The range in which the cell will remain alive.
Tolerance Limit
The point beyond which the cell will die.
A segment of DNA capable of producing a specific amino acid chain (polypeptide) resulting in a particular characteristic.
Membrane-bound cellular oraganalles responsible for the respiration of foods to release usable energy.
Pyruvic Acid
The organic acid formed during glycolysis.
Conditions for Photosynthesis
-supply of light
-wavelength of light
-absorb enough carbon dioxide
Metabolic Rate
* Age
* Health