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45 Cards in this Set

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Resting Membrane Potential
-70mV inside the cell, this is maintained by the Na+/K+ ATPase and K+ leak channel
Depolarization
Na+ Voltage-gated channels open, steady depolarization until threshold is hit, then AP is propagated
Threshold
for a typical cell, -50mV
Repolarization
1. Na+ VG channels close
2. K+ VG channels then open (more slowly than Na+ VGs and they stay open longer)
3. Overshooting RMP causes refactory period
Absolute Refractory
No response no matter how strong the depolarization is
Relative Refractory
Need to depolarize more to get an AP
Nodes of Ranvier
Nodes between myelin, Na+ VG channels are concen. here
Steps in Synaptic Transmission
1. AP reaches synaptic knob
2. Open VG Ca2+ channels
3. Rush of a Ca2+ influx causes exocytosis of NT
Post-synaptic receptors
Ligand-gated Ion Channels
Summation
1. decision by postsynaptic neuron whether to propagate an AP is determined by all pre-syn impinging upon it (can be excitatory or inhibitory)
Temporal Summation
rapid EPSP build-up from one cell that causes rapid AP
Spatial Summation
EPSPs and IPSPs from all synapses on postsynaptic membrane are summed at a given moment of time
Disynaptic reflex arc
losening of one muscle while contraction happens on another, innervates relaxing muscle
Reciprocal Innervation
deactivation of one thing due to stimualtion of another
Sympathetic Nervous System
Part of the ANS, does the "4-Fs": fight, fright, flight, and mating =0)
Parasympathetic Nervous System
Part of the ANS, "rest and digest"
Spinal Cord
Responsible for simple spinal reflexes and primitive processes (walking, peeing, and sex)
Hindbrain
(rhombencephalon) contains the medula, pons, and cerebellum
Medulla
controlls blood pressure, respiratory rate, and vomiting
Pons
control balance and antigravity posture
Cerebellum
"intergrating center" where complex movements are coordinated
Midbrain
(mesencephalon) relay area for visual and auditory info, contains mush of reticular activating system
Brainstem
medulla, pons, and midbrain
Forebrain
(prosencephalon) includes dienceph and telencephalon
Dienecephalon
contains thalamus and hypothalamus
Thalamus
relay center for somatic sensation
Hypothalamus
controlls temp regulation, memory, hunger, rage, and sex drive.
Telencephalon
regulates body movement, lmibic system, and basal nuclei
t/f
CNS contains unmyelinated axons
f
t/f
PNS contains unmyelinated axons
t
Corpus Callosum
connects left and right hemispheres
Somatice motor neuornos
1. innervate skeletal muscle
2. use Ach as their NT (excitatory only)
3. Have cell bodies in either the brainstem or in the ventral portion of the spinal cord.
Autonomic preganglionic Neuron
1. cell body in the brain stem or psinal cord
2. release Ach as their NT
Autonomic postganglionic Neuron
1.sends axon to the effector
2. Parasymp and symp differ in what NT they release
t/f parasympathetic postganglionic neurons release Ach
t
t/f sympathetic postganglionic neurons release Ach
f
release norepinephrine
Adrenal medulla
directly innervated by the sympathetic preganglionic neurons.
mechanoreceptors
respond to mechanical disturbances
chemoreceptors
olafactory/gustatory, pH, pCO2, and pO2 receptors
nocioreceptors
pain receptors, simplest type of sens receptor
thermoreceptors
changes in temperature, can be autonomic or somatic
electromagnetic receptors
photoreceptors in the eye
propioreceptors
awareness of self and of body part positions
Monosynaptic reflex arc
two neurons w/only one synapse
ganglia
somas located outside of the CNS