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42 Cards in this Set

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Phospolipids
Building Block of the cell.
Proteins
contain nitrogen, carbon hydrogen, and oxygen.
Channel Proteins
Help moelcules cross the cell membrane.
Marker Proteins
identify the cell.
Receptors proteins
transmit information into the cell.
Diffusion
Movement of molecules from high concentration to low

Move down hill.
Osmosis
Diffusion of Water
Facilitated Diffusion
transports molecules in either direction (passive transport)
Endocytosis
pinching off of a section of membrane.

a cell surrounds and engulfs
Exocytosis
Form of active transport.
Passive Transport
Usually diffusion or osmosis.
Just happens, doesn't need energy.
Active Transport
one-way transport across a membrane that requires energy
cell exerts energy to work against the concentration gradient.
ATP
molecule used by cell to deliver energy for chemical reaction.
2-ATP in Anaerobic & 36-ATP Aerboic.
Chlorophyll
absorbs red and blue light, reflects green.
gathers energy for photosynthesis.
Chloroplast
carbohydrate producing organelles found in green plants.
Photosynthesis
capture of energy from sunlight, which produces ATP and carbohydrates.
Cellular Respiration
Living things release energy from bonds in carbohydrates & other food molecules.
Glycolysis & Oxidative Resp.
Fermentation
Breaks pyruvic acid into lactic acid or ethyl alcohol.

breakdown when oxygen is not present.
Anaerobic
Without Oxygen
Glycolysis
In Cytoplasm
End Product is Lactic Acid/Ethanol
Has 2 ATP
Aerobic
With Oxygen
Oxidative Respiration
In Mitochondria
End Product is CO2 & H2O
Has 36 ATP
Glycolysis
takes place in cytoplasm
does not need oxygen
Glucose is broken into 2 pyruvic acids (Only 2 ATP)
Oxidative Respiration
Takes place in Mitochondria
Requires Oxygen
breakdown into water & CO2
36 ATP
Proteins
C,H,O, Nitrogen
20 amino acids needed
enymes, hemoglobin
work like lock & key (spiderweb)
Amino Acids
proteins
20
Carbohydrates
Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen
Made of Starches, Sugars,
Can be Simple or Complex
Cellulose-plants for cell wall
Lipids
C,H,O
Fats, Oils,Waxes, Steroids
Long term energy storage
Forms much of cell membrane
Can NOT mix with water
Nucleic Acids
DNA, RNA
Made of Nucleotides
Makes up Chromosomes
Code for Proteins/Blueprint-tells cells how to make protein
Nucleotide
subunits of nucleic acid
In DNA-form genes, encode info
In RNA-copies genes, makes protein
DNA
Deoxribonucleic Acid
Double Helix-2 strands
Encodes cell proteins
Bases-A, T, G, C Only in Nuclues
Replication
DNA codes itself.
Cell divides and copies DNA
2 DNA strands are the result
Transcription
DNA transcribes RNA
Only makes RNA to carry instruction to ribosomes.
End up with new RNA strand, original DNA.
Translation
RNA codes for proteins
triplet codon (3 base codes for amino acids)
Peptides bond int poly then protein
Mitchondria
Converts glucose into energy (ATP)
Mutation
change in genotype of an organism
Nucleus
directs cell activity
stores DNA
Prokaryote
Single cell organism
No true Nucleus
Eukaryote
contains a membrane nucleus
protists
Homeostasis
process where living things maintain a constant internal environment such as
body temperature, water level
Metabolism
Use energy
Energy by eating or photosynthesis.
Living things need energy to to move, grow, and process info.
Reproduction
Make offspring
Cells
All living things are made up of cells.
Heredity
Contain genetic info in DNA or RNA (genes) Passed on through offspring.