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31 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Three Types of Muscle Tissue
1) skeletal muscle
2) cardiac muscle
3) smooth muscle
Muscle Contraction has four possible functions:
1) body movement
2) stabilization of body position
3) movement of substances through the body
4) generating heat to maintain body temperature
What kind of muscle tissue is skeletal muscle tissue?
voluntary muscle tissue (it can be consciously controlled)
connects muscle to bone
connects bone to bone
the muscle responsible for the movement (contracts)
the muscle that stretches when the agonist contracts
Synergistic Muscles
assist the agonist by stabilizing the origin bone or by positioning the insertion bone during the movement
T or F: contraction of skeletal muscle may squeeze blood and lymph vessels aiding circulation
controlled by the hypothalamus upon stimulation by receptors in the skin and spinal cord, is the rapid contraction of skeletal muscle to warm the body
How does a muscle use leverage?
It applies a force to a bone at its insertion point and rotates the bone in some fashion about the joint.
The smallest functional unit of skeletal muscle. It is composed of many strands of 2 protein filaments (thick and thin) laid side by side to form a cylindrical segment.
Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
Each myofibril (sarcomeres are positioned end to end to form a myofibril) is surrounded by this. The lumen is is filled with Ca+ ions.
Skeletal muscle is ____nucleate
A modified membrane called the sarcolemma wraps several myofibrils together to form a muscle cell or muscle fiber.
Thick Filament
made of the protein myosin, several long myosin molecules wrap around each other to form one thick filament
Thin Filament
composed mainly of a polymer of the globular protein actin (attached to the actin are the proteins troponin and tropomyosin)
T or F: The H zone and the I band get smaller, while the A band does not change size
Neuromuscular Synapse
A neuron attaches to a muscle cell forming a neuromuscular synapse. The action potential of the neuron releases acetylcholine into the synaptic cleft.
The action potential moves deep into the muscle cell via these small tunnels in the membrane. They allow for a uniform contraction of the muscle by allowing the action potential to spread through the muscle cell more rapidly.
Motor Unit
The neuron and the muscle fibers that it innervates (independent of each other)
What does the force of a contracting muscle depend upon?
The number and size of the active motor units, and the frequency of the action potentials in each neuron of the motor unit.
T or F: Fingers have larger motor units than back muscles
Stores oxygen inside muscle cells. Can only store one molecule of oxygen.
T or F: Muscle cells always can divide.
False. They are so specialized that they have lost the ability for mitosis.
Both cardiac and skeletal muscle are striated (composed of sarcomeres)
How many nuclei does one cardiac muscle cell contain?
Intercalated Disc
Separates one muscle cell from another. They contain gap junctions which allow an action potential to spread from one cardiac cell to the next (via electrical synapses)
The action potential of cardiac muscle
exhibits a plateau after depolarization, which is created by slow-voltage-gated calcium channels which allow calcium to enter and hold the inside of the membrane at a positive potential difference (plateau lengthens time of contraction)
Smooth muscle is innervated by:
autonomic nervous system
Read Page 164-182 [LAST THING]
Biology, lectures 8 and 9