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59 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
The order of the cell cycle
Interphase
prophase
metaphase
anaphase
telophase
Chromotids attached at
centromere
Phase of mitosis in which chromosomes move toward poles
anaphase
Interphase contains
S phase
G 1 phase
G 2 phase
Living things grow because
they produce more cells
As a result of mitosis
Each new human cell receives 46 chromosomes
Cytotkinesis occurs immediately after
telophase
Structure that helps move chromosomes apart during mitosis is
the spindle
At the beginning of mitosis
chromosome consists of 2 sister chromotids
2 daughter cells result for a single cell through
cytokinesis
parent cell has 14 chromosomes before mitosis - each daughter cell will have
28
fusion of egg and sperm is
zygote
most significant difference between mitosis and meiosis
homologous pairs are split up in meiosis
gametes
do not have diploid cells
punnet do not show
actual outcome of a cross
units of a chromosome that code for various traits
genes
traits are generally controlled by a minimum of
2 alleles
one gene in a pair prevents the other from taking effect
Dominance
chief genetic material
DNA
variations of a gene
alleles
division of a cell resulting in cells with the haploid number of chromosomes
meiosis
two recessive genes =
recessive trait
2 different dominant alleles in an organism
codominance
2 unknown genotypes in offspring
DD and Dd
Rr
heterozygous
rr
homozygous recessive
Cloning
many identical cells produced
plasmids
circular
replicate independently
often used as vectors
Recombinant DNA
join DNA molecules from 2 different species
restriction enzymes
cut DNA at specific places
human gene therapy
transfers normal human genes into human cells that lack them
gel eletrophoresis
DNA fragments are separated and analyzed
Lamarck's theory of evolution
body structure can change according to the actions of the organism
adaptation
kong slow process of change in a species over time
Kettlewell's study of peppered moths
natural selection
Darwins's theory of common descent
come from a common ancestor
Darwin's theory of natural selection
variations best suited to the environment
ultimate source of genetic variation
mutation
comparing human hemoglobin with that of gorillas
fewest differences
different species
2 populations that can no longer be interbred
dispersion
the way individuals are arranged in space
carrying capacity
population size that an environment can sustain
statistical study of all populations
demography
genetic drift
population decline due to catastrophic event
normal distribution
bell shaped curve
migration
causes gene flow
human height
polygenic trait
does not promote evolution of a new species
acquired characteristics
phenotypes
natural selection
ecology
study of interactions of living organisms with one another and their environment.
place where a species lives
habitat
community
species that live together
ecosystem
habitat + community
food web
shows mort detail about the feeding relationships in a community
producers get energy
sun
trophic level charts the movement of _____ through the ecosystem
energy
primary consumers are found
second
detritivores
feed on organic wastes and dead organisms
limits the number of trophic levels
loss of energy