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29 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
cytoskeleton
meshlike network of several kinds of protein fibers which support the cell shape and anchor the organelles
collagen
most abundant protein in your body, a fibrous protein that forms the matrix of skin, ligaments, tendons and bones.
cytoplasm
everything inside the cell membrane except the cell's genetic material
acid
compound that forms hydrogen ions when dissolved in water
electron
-tiny particles spinning around the nucleus in an atom
-carry negative charge
cilia
flagella which are numerous, shorter, and organized in tightly packed rows
glycogen
longer chains of glucose-containing fragments broken down from starch in digestive process
amino acid
building block of proteins--20 different kinds used by humans
compound
-group of atoms held together by chemical bonds
-represented by chemical formulas like NaCl (table salt) and H2O (water)
centriole
cylindrical organelles formed by microtubules to help move chromosomes during cell division
enzyme
proteins which assist the chemical reactions of metabolism
carbohydrate
composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in proportion of 1:2:1
General formula: (CH2O)n, were n is the number of carbon atoms
hydrogen bond
-weak chemical bond that forms between two polar molecules
cellulose
major component of plant cell walls. Provides structural support for plants.
DNA
-deoxyribonucleic acid
-stores hereditary information in the cells
cell membrane
aka plasma membrane
all cells have one, it separates the cell's contents from materials outside the cell. Helps maintain homeostasis.
evolution
change of organisms over time
central vacuole
-large internal storage space in plant cells, where plant cells store waste products, water and nutrients.
-creates rigidity for plant.
eukaryotic
-first cells with internal compartments
-evolved about 1.5 billion yrs ago
-have a nucleus and organelles
base
any substance that ionizes to form hydroxide ions when dissolved in water. Bases lower hydrogen ion concentration of water
flagella
-long threadlike organelles which protrude from surface of many eukaryotic cells
-useful in locomotion
cell theory (3 parts)
1. all living things are composed of 1 or more cells
2. in organisms, cells are basic units of structure and function
3. cells are produced only from existing cells
element
-substance that cannot be broken down into any other substance by ordinary chemical means
-there are over 100 elements, each denoted with a 1-,2-, or 3-letter symbol
atom
-cell's smallest components
-all living and nonliving things are composed of atoms
-cloud of electrons that spin around a nucleus
Golgi apparatus
-packaging and distribution center of the cell
-determine where a protein or lipid manufactured by the cell will go
chromosome
-DNA and associated proteins organized into rod-shaped structures
-cells of your body contain 46 chromosomes each except for egg or sperm cells (23), red blood cells (0), and some specialized tissues
endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
-extensive system of internal membranes in eukaryotic cells
-composed of lipid bilayer with embedded proteins
-creates channels between membranes
ion
some atoms which react with other atoms to form particles with unequal numbers of electrons and protons
ionic bond
force of attraction between a positive and negative ion