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77 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Explain difference between axial and appendiclar skeletons
axial: head, neck, trunk; 80
appendicular: appendages, girdles; 126
Total number of bones in human skeleton
206
Where is yellow marrow produced? And what do we find stored in yellow marrow?
In medullary canal; lipids (fat)
Where is red marrow produced? And what is stored in red marrow?
epiphysis/spongy bone; RBC, WBC, platelets
What is another name for growth plate?
epiphysial plate
What is the term used to describe the shaft of the bone?
diaphysis
Where is spongy bone located?
epiphysis
Where is compact bone located?
diaphysis
What is the fibrous, connective tissue that surrounds the bone?
periosteum
The location/point where the ends of the bone/shaft meet.
metaphysis
What is another name for a soft spot?
fontanel
Where does primary osification begin? What age?
shaft/diaphysis; 5/6th week of embryonic development
Where does secondary osification begin?
epiphysis - complete at birth
4 sinuses (superior to inferior)
frontal, ethmoid, sphenoid, maxillary
Mature bone cell
osteocyte
Immature bone cell
osteoblast
A bone cell that breaks down old bone tissue
osteoclast
An unspecialized bone cell that undergoes miotic change
osteoprogenital cell
Another name for bone tissue
osseous
4 functions of the skeletal system
movement, rotection, mineal storage, blood cell production, attachment for muscles, energy storage
the matrix that makes up bone tissue: What percent is water, protein, and calcium phosphorus?
25% water, 25% proteins, 50% calcium phosphorus
What is the difference between intramembranous and endochondral bones?
intramembranous: flat bones; skull, rib
endochondral: round bones; humerus
What two primary mineral salts do bones store?
calcium and phosphorus
List three things that control bone growth
genetics, hormones, diet, mmineral storage
How does bone grow in diameter?
laying down new tissue
How does the bone grow in length?
mitotic division at growth plate
What is a break in the bone called?
fracture
What is the ongoing replacement of old bone tissue with new bone tissue?
remodeling
What is mesenchymal tissue?
embryonic tissue
What connects muscle to bone?
tendon
What connects bone to bone?
ligaments
When you have a fracture, what are the four steps of the healing process?
forms hemotoma, forms soft callus, forms soft callus, remodeling
A greenstick fracture: adult or child?
child
Articulation describes what?
to move with
What occurs in calcification?
when minerals are deposited in collagen
What gives bones its tensile strength? And what gives bone its hardness?
collagen fibers; minerals
What is the difference between true and false ribs?
true: connected to sternum by hyaline cartilage
false: 1st connected to each other by cartilage then to sternum
"Foramen" means what?
opening
An increase in the production of GH (Growth Hormone) is linked to what syndrome?
acromegaly
What is the space/cavity in the bone called?
sinus
4 differences between adult/child skeleton
suture lines are wide, space between cranial bones, bones softer, orbits are larger, smaller nasal cavity, prominent forehead (all in child)
What is a suture line?
fibrous, connective tissue between bones
What is the purpose of a foramen in the skeleton?
for nerves/ligaments to travel through, muscles to connect, primarily nerve travel
What allows head to pivot?
atlas and axis
What are some functions of the sinus cavities?
reduce weight of skull, warm, filte, moisturize air, voice resonance
How many curves are there in the spine?
4
What is the tissue that lines the medullary canal?
endosteum
The only bone that does not articulate with and other bone in the body.
hyoid
increase angle between bones
extension
decrease angle between bones
flexion
forward movement
protraction
backward movement
retraction
circular movement
circumduction
turning on an axis
rotation
lying on my stomach with my palms down
pronation
lying on back with palms facing up
supination
movement that raises the bone
elevation
the lowering of a bone
depression
away from the midline
abduction
toward the midline
adduction
movement that bends part beyond normal extension
hyperextension
movement that flexes foot towards sole (arch)
plantar flexion
hip and shoulder
ball and socket
thumb
saddle
elbow
hinge
wrist
gliding
atlas and axis
pivot
joint between metacarpals and phalanges
condaloid
vertebal column
26
cranial/facial
22
middle ears
6
hyoid
1
thoracic cage
25
pectoral girdle
4
upper limbs
60
pelvic girdle
2
lower limbs
60