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71 Cards in this Set

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Describe the nerve impulse as a series of chemical changes, which proceed through the neuron
A neuron has a lot of potassium ions (K+) and Oxygen ions (O-) inside and lots of sodium ions (NA+) outside. It's not permeable to sodium, but it's permeable to potassium. The potassium likes the oxygen because of their charges, so it stays inside. When something pinches or presses on a neuron, it opens a sodium channel in the neuron, which the sodium goes through. The potassium doesn't like that, so it exits the neuron through the K+ channel the NA+ molecule made when it entered. When the K+ ion leaves, it produces an NA+ channel, and when the NA+ enters, it creates K+ channel, etc. This creates a nerve impulse going through the neuron. This impulse travels from dendrite to terminal branches, but never backwards. After one impulse has travelled through the neuron, transport proteins restore the previous balance of the K+ ions on the inside and the NA+ on the outside.
Explain how the nerve impulse is plassed from one neuron to another at the synapse
The terminal bud of the pre-synaptic neuron almost touches the dendrite of the post-synaptic neuron. Inside the terminal bud of the pre-synaptic neuron are vesicles filled with neurotransmitters. The impulse moving to the edge of the terminal bud causes the vesicles to move to the edge of the cell, where they do exocytosis. The neurotransmitters then enter the synaptic cleft, where they cross the ravine (after some get eaten by neurotransmitter eating molecules) and some bind to the receptor proteins. This causes a sodium channel to form in the neuron, and causes the NA+ and K+ wave to continue. The extra neurotransmitters would cause more sodium channels in the second neuron if they stayed, so the enzyme molecules break them into smaller pieces, which are recycled to make more neurotransmitter molecules, so a second wave can start. There are many synapses and not just one long neuron is that you can stop the impulse at a synapse, multiply the impulse at a synapse, have a threshold value at a synapse, have many receptors going to the same effector, and many effectors going to the same receptor.
Explain how the myelin sheath formed by the Schwann cells speeds the transmission of the nerve impulse.
It is hard for impulses to be sent quickly through very long neurons. To make the impulses move faster, Schwann cells are wrapped aroung sections of the axon of the long neuron. The cells are loaded with myelin sheaths, which are lipid molecules, making the Schwann cells impermeable. When the neuron is activated, NA+ goes in and K+ goes out only where there is no Schwann cell-before the first Schwann cell and in between Schwann cells (called the nodes of ranvier. The impulse is just as strong, but faster.
Summarize the function of each part of the human central nervous system.
Cerebellum: controls habitual muscle movements, like walking-things you learned once to do, but don't have to learn again.
Cerebrum: In control of learning things-things you are/can be conscious of. It is the outer layer.
Brain stem: The part of the brain that connects the spinal cord and the brain
Spinal cord: The "main cable" by which impulses pass from the brain to the body. Also, it makes simple connections between neurons.
Distinguish among depressant, stimulant, and hallucenogic drugs.
Depressants: They block the synapses in the pain circuits of your brain so you feel no pain (this is alcohol and valium, and you can't take these together or they have synergy and screw you up more than you already are)
Stimulants: They are the drugs that cause more impulses through the pleasure circuits of the brain (including caffeine, crack/cocaine, and nicotine)
Hallucinogens: these allow you to see things people don't see, hear things people don't hear, hear things people feel, etc. (includes marijuana). This has negative tolerance, where you only need to smoke a little bit, and you'll get a larger effect, since the substance stays in your blood and builds up to a larger reaction.
Recognize examples of acquired and innate behavior.
Behaviors in general are any things that organisms do that can be observed or measured. You cannot learn whether fish think, because it cannot be measured, so it is not a behavior. Innate behaviors are things that every member of a species posesses. There are two categories under this, instincts and reflexes. Reflexes are simple behaviors, and instincts are more complex (every normal member has them). Reflex: moving your knee when it is tapped. Instinct: birds flying south for the winter. Acquired behaviors are behaviors that you gain in your lifetime, like laughing or being ticklish.
Describe addiction in terms of changes, which happen at synapses in certain parts of the brain.
Addiction is what happend when you over-stimulate the pleasure centers in the brain and your brain adjusts. Your brain becomes accustomed to the amount of pleasure you are getting from the drugs that you develop a need for more and more of the drug to get the desired effect. Eventually, you need a ton of the drug to feel normal. This is dependence, when you need the drug to feel normal. When you are addicted, you develop withdrawal symptoms when you don't have the drug (can by physical or psycological).
Acquired behavior
A behavior you get because of experience. Laughing when something is funny is something you're not born with. You have to gain experience to learn that.
Addiction
When you continue to do something even though it is clearly bad for you-i.e. when you get addicted to a drug because it is the only thing that makes you feel good-you can't stop.
Alcohol
A depressant--don't take it with another depressant or it's off to the cemetery with you.
Associative neuron
The neuron in the center of the three neurons, also called interneuron. Usually located in the spinal cord, connects the sensory neuron to the motor neuron (if there are more than three neurons, there are more associative neurons)
Autonomic nervous system
The half of the nervous system that controls the nerves of your body that you can't consciously control (like peristalsis of your small intestine).
Axon
The long skinny part of the neuron where the O- and K+ are stored. The nerve impulse travels through here.
Brain
Has three parts:
Brain stem: where the spinal cord connects to the brain
Cerebrum: anything you are conscious of/can control
Cerebellum: things that you learn to do but are now natural (little bulb at the back of the brain)
Brain Stem:
The part that connects the brain to the spinal cord, where all autonomic responses occur
Caffeine
Stimulant, similar to cocaine
Cell body
The part of a neuron off to the side of the axon where the nucleus is plus the other organelles
Central nervous system
All the nerves either in the brain or spinal cord. (has to be entirely inside)
Cerebellum
The part of the brain that controls habitual muscle movements (like walking-you learn it, and then you don't have to learn it anymore)
Cerebrum
In control of learning things-things you can be conscious of. The cerebral cortex is the outer layer.
Cocaine
A drug that prevents neurotransmitters from being recycled, so they stay there, get put back together, and send more impulses. This makes your nerves ubersensitive. Cocaine is just the leaves, so it could be very contaminated.
Conditioned behavior
A type of acquired behavior when you have a stimulis that leads to a response. You can add another stimulus in addition to get the same response. If you do the same things over again, then you can remove the original stimulus.
inhibitory effect
When the brain refuses to feel pain (before something really nerve-racking, pain goes away)
Crack:
a refined version of cocaine...extra substances are taken out, so the effect is greater
Dendrite
branches at the beginning of a neuron. The impulse goes from the dendrites to the terminal branches.
Dependence
Dependence means you are physically/psycologically normal only when you have the drug (you are abnormal when you don't have the drug).
Depressant
A drug that works by blocking pain circuits that are normally triggered when something bad happens. Then, if you use it a lot, your brain starts to try harder, so after the depressant wears off, there's strong pain. They produce both psycological and physical dependence-withdrawal, too. If you take more than one, it has a synergistic effect and you are comatose or dead.
Dopamine
When dopamine is released, you feel pleasure
Effector
The parts of the body that create the response: muscles of a knee jerk reflex are the effectors.
Enkephalin
It's a naturally ocurring opiate that comes after stress and makes you really happy.
Hallucinogen
Any substance that causes you to hallucinate, ot see things no one else does, hear things people feel, etc. It has psycological dependence, no physical dependence, There is negative tolerance, where a smaller joint gives you a bigger effec because the substance stays in your blood. Sometimes, there are permanent highs.
Imprinted behavior:
Any behavior you gain at a certian stage in life and lost at another state in life. If the first thing a duck sees is its mother, it will follow its mother for a few years.
Instinct:
A complex behavior that all members of the species posess (birds flying south for winter)
Interneuron
same thing as an associative neuron
Learned Behavior
A type of behavior where you learn a behavior due to experience, i.e. walking
Left cerebral hemisphere
the half of the brain that controls language, writing, speaking, and seeing detail
Marijuana
Commonly known as a hallucinogen
Motor neuron
third neuron in the series. If there are more than three, there will be more motor neurons in the series. It passes an impulse from the assocaite neuron to the muscle cels or the gland cells so a response can occur.
Myelin
The lipid molecules found in Schwann cells that keep the outside impermeable to K+ and NA+ cells, so they don't have to go through to pass the signal.
Nerve
a cell that passes a signal from one cell to another
Nerve Impulse
The signal that goes from the dendrite to the terminal branches (sodium in, potassium out)
Nicotine
Stimulant, found in tobacco
Node of Ranvier
The spaces between Schwann cells where potassium and sodium pass through
Neuron
a nerve cell. the cell that passes nerve impulses from one end to another.
Neurotransmitter
the molecule that is present in passing an impulse over a synapse.
Norepinephrine
The neurotransmitters found in most synapses
Parasympathetic Nervous System
The half of the nervous system that makes you ready to relax, sleep, or digest food
Peripheral Nervous System
Any part of the nervous system that is not entirely part of the brain or spinal cord-mostly motor and sensory neurons in this system)
Psychoactive
drugs that alter your mental state-only considered so if they're taken to alter your mental state
Receptor
Parts of the body that change because of stimulus. The dendrites of a neuron are always the receptors. In a knee jerk reflex, the receptor would be whatever dendrite you press to make the knee jerk.
Reflex
A simple behavior that is in every member of a species (knee jerk)
Response
Actions an organism does because of stimuli (knee jerking is the response to the knee tapping)
Right cerebral hemisphere
Half of the brain that recognizes faces, and can put things together. For example, if they didn't have their right brain and had to draw something, the pieces would be everywhere.
Schwann cell
The pancake-like cells that are wrapped around a section of the axon to speed up the impulse by decreasing the places where the sodium and potassium need to go in and out.
Sensory neuron
The first neuron that impulses pass through. Connects the receptor to the spinal cord so the associative neuron can pass the impulse further.
Sodium-potassium pump
The transport proteins taht restore the ion balnce after a nerve impulse has been sent up the neuron-they push the substances back by changing their shape
Somatic nervous system
The part of the nervous system that controls what you can consciously control (cerebellum and cerebrum)
Spinal cord
The "main cable" through which impulses pass from the brain to the body. It makes simple connections between neurons.
Stimulant
It causes more dopamine to be released in the pleasure circuits of the brain. (example: cocaine)
Stimuli
more than one stimulus
Stimulus
What causes the response to happen. Every response has a stimulus. The knee getting hit is the stimulus.
Sympathetic nervous system
The part of the nervous system gets you ready to run, or fight, such as extra blood going to muscles, and eyes dialating.
Synapse
Where one neuron transfers a signal to another
Synaptic cleft
the space between two neurons
Synaptic vesicle
The small vacuoles produces that store neurotransmitter molecules
Terminal branch
The branches on the end of the cell where the nerve impulse ends. It goes from the dendrites to the terminal branch, where there are terminal buds.
Terminal bud
circles on the terminal branch. They house the neurotransmitter molecules, so that impulses can pass through these sites
Tolerance
the tolerance level is the amount of a drug you need before you get the desired effect (low tolerance means you don't need a lot of the drug)
Threshold
Sometimes you need a certain number of impulses before they can cross a synapse. The threshold value is the number of synapses.
Valium
a depressant
Withdrawal
When you develop symptoms when the drug is not in your system (can be psycological or physical)