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35 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is an organic molecule?
A carbon-based molecule
What is an inorganic molecule?
A non carbon-based molecule
What is hydrocarbon?
Organic molecule composed of only carbon and hydrogen atoms.
What is a functional group?
a group of atoms within a molecule that interacts in predictable ways with other molecules.
What is hydrophilic mean?
Attracts water molecules.
What is a monomer?
A small molecular unit that is the building block of a larger molecule.
What is a polymer?
a long chain of molecular units (monomers)
What is a carbohydrate?
An organic compound made of sugar molecules.
What is a monosaccharide?
A sugar containing one sugar unit.
What is a disaccharide?
A sugar containing two monosacchrides.
What is a polysaccharide?
a long polymer chain made up of simple sugar monomers.
What is starch?
A polysaccharide in plant cells that consists entirely of glucose monomers.
What is glycogen?
polysaccharide in animal cells that consists of many glucose monomers
What is cellulose?
polysaccharide consisting of glucose monomers that reinforces plant-cell walls
What is a lipid?
one of a class of water-avoiding compounds
What does hydrophobic mean?
avoids water molecules
What is fat?
organic compound consisting of a three-carbon backbone (glycerol) attached to three fatty acids
What is saturated fat?
fat in which all three fatty acid chains contain the maximum possible number of hydrogen atoms
What is unsaturated fat?
fat with less than the maximum number of hydrogens in one or more of its fatty acid chains
What is a steroid?
lipid molecule with four fused carbon rings
What is cholesterol?
steroid molecule present in the plasma membranes of animal cells
What is protein?
polymer constructed from a set of 20 amino acid monomers
What is an amino acid?
monomer that makes up proteins; contains carboxyl and amino functional groups
What is a polypeptide?
chain of linked amino acids
What is denaturation?
loss of normal shape of a protein due to heat or other factor
What is activation energy?
minimum amount of energy required to trigger a chemical reaction
What is a catalyst?
agent that speeds up chemical reactions
What is an enzyme?
specialized protein that catalyzes the chemical reactions of a cell
What is a substrate?
specific reactant acted on by an enzyme
What is an active site?
region of an enzyme into which a particular substrate fits
What is the process of a chemical reaction?
To start a chemical reaction, it is first necessary to weaken chemical bonds in the reactant molecules.One way to provide activation energy is to heat up the mixture of molecules. Hotter molecules may collide with enough energy to weaken bonds, whereas cooler molecules collide with less energy. Cellular reactions depend on the assistance of catalysts, compounds that speed up chemical reactions.Enzymes provide a way for reactions to occur at the cell's normal temperature. An enzyme doesn't supply activation energy to the reacting molecules, but instead lowers the energy requirement barrier so that the reaction can proceed at normal cell temperatures.
What is different about each type of amino acid?
the "side group" that attaches to the fourth bond of the central carbon
What is the process of denaturation?
An unfavorable change in temperature, pH, or some other quality of the environment can cause a protein to unravel and lose its normal shape.The polypeptide chains become tangled up with one another. Heating unfolds proteins because most of the forces that maintain folding are weak attractions between pairs of side groups, and between side groups and water. Hot molecules collide with enough force to overcome these weak attractions. Since a protein's function depends on its shape, a protein that becomes denatured and loses its shape also loses its ability to work properly.
What is a dehydration reaction?
Each time a monomer is added to a chain, a water molecule is released
What is a hydrolysis reaction?
Organisms not only build polymers; they also have to break them down. For example, many of the molecules in your food are polymers. You must break down these giant molecules to make their monomers available to your cells. Your cells can either further break down the monomers to obtain energy, or, alternatively, use them to build new polymers. Cells break bonds between monomers by adding water to them, the reverse of dehydration