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180 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the metric unit of volume
liter
for ease of understanding, scientist report measurements using the
SI or metric system
Whether applications of science to everyday life are considered good, bad, right, or wrong comes under the category of
ethics
Counts or measurements are examples of data produced by _________ research
quantitative
IN an experiment, the _________ group is used to test the effect of the independent variable
experimental
A ________ is based on the analysis of data collected in a controlled experiment
conclusion
a brain scan is an example of
technology
________ is a possible explanation for a scientific question
hypothesis
______ is used to make small details of an object visible to a scientist
microscope
Biologist discover problems by ______ the world around them
observing
The them e that reflects the idea that there has been a gradual change in the characteristics of species over the time is ________
evolution
Living things adjust to a stimulus by a reaction called a(n) ________
response
Living things change during their lives through ________ and _______
growth and development
all living things _______ to make more living things
reproduce
the study of plants in biology is called _______
botany
________ electron microscope gives us a 3-D picture
scanning
the ________ electron microscope gives us a look at the inside of a cell
transmission
the study of standards for what is right and what is wrong is called _________
ethics
A structured procedure for collecting information to test a hypothesis is a(n) ________
experiment
the application of science to the needs and problems of society is ____________
technology
A scientific explanation of known facts arrived at through repeated testing over time is a(n) __________
theory
the part of an experiment in which all conditions are kept the same are the ________
constants
the steps commonly used by scientist in gathering information to test hypotheses and solve problems are called ______________
scientific methods
a testable explanation for a question or problem a(n) ________
hypothesis
Because it is often difficult to gather numerical data _________ information is collected
qualitative
_________ _________ research is usually based on numerical measurements
quantitative descriptive
Nitrogen is released to the abiotic parts of the biosphere from the processes of death, _______ and ________ by bacteria
decay and decomposition
Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere enters the biotic parts of the biosphere through ______________________
plants, photosynthesis, and nitrogen fixation
some birds are known as honey guides because they may be followed by humans to wild beehives, When the humans take honey from the hives, the birds are able to feast on the honey and bees, too. this type of relation ship can best be described as __________
mutualism
cougars are predators that often eat weakened or diseased animals. this is a description of the ________ of cougars
niche
an ecologist who studies how several species in an area interact among each other and with the abiotic parts of the environment is interested in the biological organization level called a(n) _____________
ecosystem
an ecologist who studies how several species in an area interact is interested in the biological organization called a _____________
community
Animals don not have ____ walls
cell
scientist who study the relationship among living organisms and their environment are called _______
ecologist
all living things are made up of ______
cells
a condition in which 2 or more organisms live closely together and benefit each other is called _________
mutualism
name the 3 parts of the cell theory
1. All living things are made form cells
2. Cells are basic structure
3. all cells come form other cells
the scientist who first descried living cells as seen through a simple microscope
Van Leeuwenhoek
Water moves into a cell placed in a(n) _______ solution
hypotonic solution
Water moves out of a cell if the cell is placed in a(n) _______ solution
hypertonic
If cells care placed in a strong sugar solution, water will _______ the cell
move out
Each step in a food chain or food web is called a(n) _________
trophic level
If a cell is placed in salt water, water leaves the cell by _______
osmosis
the structure most responsible for maintaining cell homeostasis is the _________
Plasma membrane
a___________ is a model representing energy flow and interconnected food chains in an ecosystem
food web
Organisms recycle _________ back into the air during cellular respiration
carbon dioxide
Before biogenesis became an accepted cornerstone of biology, it was widely accepted that living things could arise spontaneously from other __________
living things
humans are thought to have evolved during the ________ era
Cenozoic
Which group of organisms is believed to have been the earliest to evolve?
cyanobacteria
the Cambrian Explosion resulted in the evolution of the first representatives of most animal __________
phyla
The exchange of matter through abiotic factors and organisms is called the ___________
biogeochemical cycle
the endosymbiotic theory proposes that eukaryotic cells arouse from communities formed by __________
prokaryotes
the first organisms on Earth were most like today's
bacteria
two gases that probably existed in Earth's early atmosphere are ___________________
water vapor and nitrogen
Miller and Urey's experiments attempted to demonstrate whether _____________ could have formed before life was present
organic molecules
One necessary condition for the evolution of the first life on Earth was the presence of ______________
liquid water
a(n) ____________ collects energy from sunlight or
autotroph
The basic divisions of the geologic time scale from larger to smaller are ________
eras and periods
the Mesozoic Era occurred after the ________ Era
Palezoic
Fossilized evidence of Earth's first forms of life would consist of _________ from the Precambrian
prokaryotes
In an experiment, the ________ group is used to test the effect of the independent variable
experimental
Cells that work together to perform the same function are organized into __________
tissues
the movement of particles from an area of higher concentration to one of lower concentration is _______
diffusion
When the concentration of dissolved substances outside the cell is higher than the concentration inside the cell you have _______ solution
hypertonic
_______ solution; the concentration of dissolved substances in the solution is the same as the concentration of dissolved substances inside the cell
Isotonic
What significant function can parasitism have in the ecosystem
Population decrease of an over abundant species
________ is the diffusion of water molecules through a selectively permeable membrane
Osmosis
_________ is the release of wastes or cell products from the inside to outside of the cell
exocytosis
what process involves the capture and conversion of nitrogen into a form useable by plants?
nitrogen fixation
How can detritivores be beneficial to the environment?
By getting rid of waste and dead matter
the total mass of living matter at each trophic level is called _______
biomass
Water, carbon, and nitrogen are released back into the atmosphere during _______
decomposition
to explain and show how the amount of living material at each __________ of a food chain changes, you could use a pyramid of biomass
trophic level
the range of temperatures in which an insect is able to live and reproduce is one element of that organism's, _______ a description of its ecological requirements
niche
Mosquito larvae are eaten by some fish species when they are present in the same body of water. For the mosquito these fish are a _____ factor
biotic
Burning fossil fuels has rapidly released long-term reserves of ______ cycle
carbon
Adding carbon dioxide to a greenhouse generally increases the rate of plant growth meaning that in natural concentrations it ______ the growth of plants
limits
the relationship between nitrogen-fixing bacteria and their plants is best called ________
mutualism
Decomposers recycle ______ from other organisms, but they use energy to do so
nutrients
A nitrogen molecule has just been "fixed" by a nitrogen-fixing bacterium. The next organism to use the nitrogen molecule is probably a(n) _____
plant
Plants return liquid to the atmosphere through a process called _______
transpiration
_________ is a group of interacting populations in a particular area
Biological community
the ability of an organism to survive biotic or abiotic factors is called _______
tolerance
_____ is a treeless biome with a layer of permanently frozen soil called permafrost
Tundra
A biotic and abiotic factor that restricts the numbers of organisms in an ecosystem is called a(n) _________
limiting factor
A ______ is an area where he annual rate of evaporation exceeds the rate of precipitation
desert
Material that is deposited by water, wind, or glaciers is called _____
sediment
One community replacing another as a result of changing abiotic and biotic factors is called ___________
ecological sucession
The average weather conditions affecting a biome is called _______
climate
The first organisms to appear during ecological successions are called __________
pioneer species
Warm temperatures and large amounts of rainfall characterize what type of biome?
Tropical rainforest
______ succession is the most rapid form of succession because soil are already established
secondary
Pioneer species generally pave the way for other species during succession because they for _____
soil
The type of vegetation that survives in a certain environment is dependent mainly upon temperature and annual _____
rainfall
In a climax community there is very little amount of change in the number of ________
species
When a fast-moving river slows, it results in the deposition of _______
sediment
How many different kinds of atoms does an element contain?
one
Acid solutions are produced by the release of ________ ions
hydrogen
Atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons are called _______
isotopes
the primitive Earth atmosphere is hypothesized to have consisted mostly of ____________________
methane, ammonia, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfate, water vapor
Scientist agree that 2 developments must have occurred for life to come into being: the formation of simple organic molecules important to life and organization into ______ organic molecules
complex
Before biogenesis became an accepted cornerstone of biology, it was widely accepted that life arose through __________
spontaneous generation
The geologic time scale begins at the formation of Earth approximately __________ years ago
4.6 Billion
What did Urey and Miller use to get a spark, simulating lighting?
A battery
Fossils are usually found in _________ rocks
sedimentary
what type of fossil is not found in sedimentary rock ?
amber and ice
Who completely debuked spontaneous generation?
Pasteur
The theory about everything being made of cells came from ____________
Schleiden & Schwann
According to one theory, the first prokaryotes probably obtained their food by eating _____________
Organic molecules
Which group of organisms is believed to have been the earliest to evolve ?
heterotrophs
A clear fish imprint in a rock indicates that the rock is probably
Sedimentary
Urey and Miller subjected water, ammonia, methane, and hydrogen to heating and cooling cycles and holts of electricity in an attempt to form a complex ______ molecule
organic
What process contributed most directly to the evidence of aerobic organisms?
photosynthesis
the cambrian explosion resulted in the evolution of the first ________
mammals
A very large mass extinction in which amphibians and trilobites disappeared occurred at the end of the ________ era
Paleozioc
During the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods, the dominant land animals were _______
dinosaurs
A fossilized dinosaur, found with fossils of the flowering plants that it ate, must have lived during the ________ era
Mesozoic
Modern experiments similar to Miller and Urey's demonstrate that simulating conditions thought to exist on early Earth can produce some bases contained in ________
amino acids
How are atoms in molecules held together?
ionic bonds
An organism that uses hydrogen sulfide as a source of energy is categorized as a(n) ____________
chemoautotroph
Most anerobic organisms are _______
unicellular
A(n) ______ can produce its own food
Autotroph
A(n) ________ must rely on other sources for food
heterotroph
Carbon compounds that come from living organisms are called _____ compounds
organic
How many electrons can a carbon atom share?
4
Tearing paper results in a ________ change
physical
H20 represents a formula for a _______ compound
chemical
the nucleus of an atom contains ______ and _______
protons and neutrons
Electrons move about the nucleus of an atom in regions called _________
electron cloud
What are the basic building blocks of proteins?
amino acids
Water dissolves many ionic and molecular compounds because of its _______
polarity
When molecules of glucose and fructose combine to for sucrose, they do so by _______
condensation
A chlorine atom becomes a chloride ion when it gains an ______
electron
the various enzymes in our bodies are made from _______
protein
Glucose and fructose, with the formula C6H12O6 differ in arrangement of _______
atoms
A very strong base might have a pH as high as ________
13
carbon-12, carbon-13, and carbon-14 are _______
isotopes
The total number of atoms in a molecule of sucrose, C12H22O11
45
An atom of fluorine has nine electrons. Its second energy level has ___
7
An unsaturated lipid contains ________ bonds
double
Unlike carbohydrates and fats, proteins contain ______
nitrogen
Diffusion continues until there is no _______ gradient
pressure or concentration
Brownian motion is evidence of ______ motion of molecules
random
An organic compound with a ratio of about two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom for each carbon atom is a(n) _________
carbohydrate
the smaller subunits that make up nucleic acids are ________
nucleotides
Any substance that forms hydrogen ions in water is a(n) ______
acid
2 atoms that share electrons are held together by ______ bonds
covalent
Atoms of 2 or more elements chemically combined are ________
compounds
Atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons are ________
isotopes
Glucose polymer that forms the cell walls of plants is ________
cellulose
The larger molecule that is formed when many smaller molecules bond together is _______
polymer
the ____ molecule has unequal distribution of charge
polar
a _______ is a protein that speeds up a chemical reaction
catalyst
the bond formed between amino acids is a _______
peptide
All the chemical changes that occur within an organism is the ________
metabolism
The minimum amount of energy needed for a chemical reaction is called ______
activation energy
The center of an atom is the ______
nucleus
What does the first law of thermodynamics state?
energy is conserved
Autotrophs that convert light energy into chemical energy are called ___________
photoautotrophs
A green pigment that traps energy from sunlight is called _______
chlorophyll
The biogeochemicalcycle tries to get phosophorus
phosophorus
has to has chlorphyll and chlorplast
photoautotrophs
The endosymbiant theory
that eukaryotes evolved from series of prokaryotes
The end result of Urey and Millers experiment
they got complex and inorganic molecules
Diffusion will always move from an area of ________ concentration to _______ concentration
Higher to lower
the feature that distuingshes the arthropod from others is _________
jointed appendeges
Spiders breathe with book lungs and crusteaceans breathe with _____
gills
the cycle of metamorphisis
egg, nimph, adult
the only thing biologist are concerned about is _______
living things
schlieiden dealt with _______
animals
What did mass extinctions do?
they cleared other habitats and made new ones for other species
A length of the food chain varies with the ______
ecosystem
The role that and organism plays in the ecosystem
niche
transports raw material
transport vesicle
How many mass extinctions has there been
5
Polymers
means more than 2
Made up of more than 1 amino acids
proteins
Can nucleic acid be considered a polymer _____
yes
The characteristic of water that makes it a good solvent
Polarity
An molecule that has an unequal distribution of charges
polar