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148 Cards in this Set

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DNA
hereditary information in the form of a large molecule called deoxyribonucleic acid
nucleic acid
RNA
primary transcription enzyme
nucleic acid
Replication
the process by which DNA copies itself during interphase
protein synthesis
Transcription
the process in which RNA is made from DNA
protein synthesis
Translation
the process of converting the genetic code in RNA into the amino
acid sequence that makes up a protein
protein synthesis
DNA Polymerase
an enzyme that binds to the separated strands of DNA and
assembles each strand’s complement in replication
Protein Synthesis
amino acid
a carboxylic acid with an amino group; one of 20 monomers that
form proteins
protein synthesis
complementary strand
the strand containing the anti codons opposite to the codons on RNA
Protein Synthesis
adenine,guanine,cytosine,
thymine
nitrogen-containing bases that are a component of a nucleotide
Base Pairing
uracil
a nitrogen-containing base found in RNA
Base Pairing
codon
a group of three sequential nitrogen bases of an mRNA molecule
base pairing
anticodon
a region of tRNA consisting of three bases complementary to the
codon of mRNA
base pairing
recombinant DNA
a DNA segment from at least two different organisms
Genetic Engineering
plasmids
a single ring of extrachromosomal DNA in bacteria
genetic engineering
cloning vectors
a carrier used to clone a gene and transfer it from one organism
to another
genetic engineering
restriction enzymes
a protein that recognizes specific sequences in a DNA
molecule and cuts it into pieces
genetic engineering
sticky ends
the single-stranded end of a double-stranded DNA fragment that can
form base pairs with another sticky end of a DNA fragment cut by the same
enzyme
genetic engineering
gel electrophoresis
technique used to separate nucleic acids or proteins by size
and charge
genetic engineering
karyotype
a picture of an individual’s chromosomes
genetic engineering
chromosomal map
a diagram of allele positions on a chromosome
genetic engineering
mutagen
an environmental factor that damages DNA
mutations
point mutations
the change of a single nitrogen-containing base within a codon
mutations
nondisjunction
the failure of homologous chromosomes to separate during
meiosis or the failure of sister chromatids to separate during mitosis
mutations
monosomy
a condition in a diploid cell in which one chromosome of one pair is
missing as a result of nondisjunction during meiosis
mutations
frame shift
a mutation that results in the misreading of the code
during translation because of a change in the reading frame
mutations
translocation
a mutation in which a broken piece of chromosome attaches to a
nonhomologous chromosome; movement of organic molecules in plant tissues
mutation
competition
fighting for food, territory, mates, etc.
Natural Selection
survival of the fittest
Darwin's theory of how organisms with selective traits survive
natural selection
acquired traits
traits recieved from hereditary information
natural selection
overpopulation
too many organisms for amount of resources needed to survive
natural selection
emigration
the movement of individuals out of a population
genetic equilibrium
immigration
the movement of individuals into a population
genetic equilibrium
genetic drift
a shift in allele frequencies in a population due to chance
genetic equilibrium
speciation
the formation of a new species
genetic equilibrium
gene pool
all the genes for all of the traits in a population
genetic equilibrium
gene flow
the movement of genes into or out of a population
genetic equilibrium
coevolution
the mutual evolution of two different species interacting with each
other
patterns of evo
divergent evolution
the process of two or more related species becoming more
and more dissimilar
patterns of evo
convergent evolution
the process by which unrelated species become more
similar as they adapt to the same kind of environment
patterns of evo
adaptive radiation
an evolutionary pattern in which many species evolve from
a single ancestral species
patterns of evo
homologous
chromosome one of a pair of morphologically similar
chromosomes

OR

similar features that originated in a shared ancestor
structures
analogous
in evolution, structures in more than one organism that
have similar appearance and function, but different embryological origin
structure
vestigial
referring to a functionless structure that was functional in an ancestral
species
structure
disruptive
a type of natural selection in which individuals with two
extreme forms of a trait have an advantage
natural selection
stabilizing
a type of natural selection in which the average form of a
trait causes an organism to have an advantage in reproduction
natural selection
sexual
the preferential choice of a mate based on a specific
phenotypic trait
natural selection
kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
just flip:
I always remember..
King
Philip
clings
on
favorite
girl
scouts
;)
classification
cyanobacteria
photosynthetic unicellular prokaryotes
organisms
phylogeny
the evolutionary history of a species or taxonomic group
classification
morphology
the study of the internal and external structure and form of an
organism
classification
domains
in the three-domain system of classification, one of three broad groups
that all living things fall into on the basis of rRNA analysis
classification
HIV
Human Immunodeficiency Virus
Viruses
reverse transcriptase
an enzyme that makes DNA from an RNA template
viruses
retrovirus
a virus, such as HIV, that contains RNA and reverse transcriptase
viruses
bacteriophage
a virus that infects bacteria
viruses
pathogens
an organism that causes disease
viruses
vaccines
a solution containing a harmless version of a virus, bacterium, or toxin
that causes an immune response when introduced to the body
viruses
lytic cycle
the replication process of viruses that results in the destruction of the
host cell
viruses
lysogenic cycle
the replication process of viruses that allows the virus to live in the host for a long time
viruses
helper t cells
a type of T cell that coordinates the immune response
cell mediated immunity
memory t cells
a specialized white blood cell that protects the body from
reinfection by a specific pathogen
cell mediated immunity
cytotoxic t cells
a type of T cell that destroys infected body cells
cell mediated immunity
macrophages
a large white blood cell that engulfs pathogens and cellular debris
cell mediated immunity
suppressor t cells
a type of T cell that shuts down the immune response after
the pathogen has been eliminated
cell mediated immunity
b cells
a lymphocyte that produces antibodies in response to antigens
humorial immunity
plasma cells
a differentiated B cell that produces antibodies and secretes them
into the blood
humorial immunity
antibiotics
a chemical that can inhibit the growth of some bacteria
humorial immunity
antigen
a substance that stimulates an immune response
humorial immunity
histamines
a kind of cytokine that causes an inflammatory response to an injury
resulting in redness, swelling, warmth, and pain
allergies
antihistamines
suppresses the bodies portection of histamines
allergies
allergens
a usually harmless antigen in the environment that is capable of
inducing an allergic reaction
allergies
inflammatory response
a response in which white blood cells engulf foreign
substances and body temperature rises
nonspecific responses
phagocytes
a cell that engages in phagocytosis
nonspecific responses
phagocytosis
a type of endocytosis in which a cell engulfs large particles or
whole cells
nonspecific responses
interferon
a protein produced by the body that inhibits the reproduction of
viruses
nonspecific responses
chemotropic
plant growth in response to a chemical
plants
heterotrophic
an organism that obtains organic food molecules by eating other
organisms or their by-products
diseases
photosynthetic
the conversion of light energy into chemical energy stored in
organic compounds
plants
saprophyte
an organism that feeds on dead organic material
disease
parasitic
an organism that obtains its nutrition at the expense of another
disease
symbiotic
the relationship between different species living in close association
with one another
disease
mutualistic
a form of symbiosis in which both organisms benefit from living
together
disease
conjugation
the union of two protists to exchange genetic material
bacteria
gram stain
a series of dyes that stain bacteria either purple or pink according
to the chemistry of the bacterial cell wall
bacteria
pili
an appendage that bacteria use to attach to objects
bacteria
flagella
a hairlike structure made up of microtubules that function in
locomotion
bacteria
cysts
a resistant, thick-walled structure that encloses and protects a dormant
organism
protists
eyespots
a localized region of pigment in some invertebrates and protozoa that
detects changes in the quantity and quality of light
protists
vacuoles
a fluid-filled organelle that stores enzymes or metabolic wastes in a
plant cell
protists
psuedopodia
a retractile, temporary cytoplasmic extension that functions in
movement in certain ameboid organisms
protists
macronucleus
in Paramecia, the larger of the two types of nuclei
protists
micronucleus
in Paramecia, the smaller of the two nuclei; involved in sexual
reproduction
protists
bilateral symmetry
in animals, a body plan in which the left and right sides
mirror each other
animal bodies
radial symmetry
in animals, an arrangement of body parts around a central
axis
animal bodies
no symmetry
randomness to the max (my def)
animal bodies
dorsal
the top of a bilaterally symmetrical animal
animal bodies
ventral
the bottom of a bilaterally symmetrical animal
animal bodies
anterior
the front end of a bilaterally symmetrical organism
animal bodies
posterior
the back end of a bilaterally symmetrical organism
animal bodies
metamorphosis
a major change in form that occurs as a larval animal develops
into an adult
metamorphosis
larva
an immature form of an organism that is morphologically distinct from
that of an adult
metamporphosis
nymph
an immature form of an insect
metamorphosis
chrysalis
the outer covering of a butterfly pupa
metamorphosis
cephalization
concentration of nerve tissue and sensory organs at the anterior
end of an organism
metamorphosis
segmentation
division of a body into units
metamorphosis
dorsal nerve cord
a neural tube dorsal to the notochord
metamorphosis
fertilization
joining of male and female genetic data
metamorphosis
zygote
the diploid cell that results from the fusion of gametes
metamorphosis
meiosis
the process of nuclear division that reduces the number of
chromosomes in a cell by half
metamorphosis
gastrulation
the cup-shaped embryo formed as the blastula folds inward
metamorphosis
cleavage
the divisions of the zygote immediately following fertilization
metamorphosis
endoderm
the innermost of the three germ layers of the gastrula; develops into
the epithelium of the pharynx, respiratory tract, digestive tract, bladder, and
urethra
germ layers
mesoderm
a layer of cells in the gastrula that gives rise to muscles and to
interior body linings
germ layers
ectoderm
the outermost of the three germ layers of the gastrula that develops
into the epidermis and epidermal tissues, the nervous system, external sense
organs, and the mucous membranes lining the mouth and anus
germ layers
deuterostome
an organism in which the blastopore develops into the anus and
the coelom arises by enterocoely and whose embryo has indeterminate
cleavage
metamorphosis
exoskeleton
the hard external covering of some invertebrates that provides
protection and support
metamorphosis
endoskeleton
an internal skeleton
metamorphosis
gemmules
an asexual reproductive structure produced by some freshwater
sponges
invertebrates
sessiles
referring to an organism that attaches firmly to a surface and does not
move
invertebrates
spicules
one of the small, spike-shaped particles of calcium carbonate or silicon
dioxide that make up the skeleton of some sponges
invertebrates
gastrovascular cavity
a digestive chamber with a single opening found in
cnidarians, ctenophores, and flatworms
invertebrates
nerve net
a diffuse web of interconnected nerve cells in the nervous system of
cnidarians
invertebrates
tentacle
a flexible appendage with which an animal feels its environment or
grasps objects
invertebrates
radula
a rough, tonguelike structure used in feeding by many mollusks
invertebrates
mantle
the epidermal layer of mollusks
invertebrates
gills
an organ specialized for the exchange of gases with water
invertebrates
gizzard
a muscular region of the digestive tract in birds that crushes food
invertebrates
setae
one of the external bristles on annelids
invertebrates
nephridia
tubule through which some invertebrates eliminate wastes
invertebrates
clitellum
a noticeable swelling around the sex organs of an earthworm during
reproduction
invertebrates
aorta
the largest artery in the human body; carries blood from the left ventricle
to systemic circulation
circulatory
superior vena cava
the large vein carrying blood from the upper part of the
body
circulatory
inferior vena cava
the large vein carrying blood from the lower part of the
body
circulatory
coronary sirculation
a subsystem of systemic circulation that supplies blood
to the heart
circulatory
pulmonary circulation
the movement of blood between the heart and the
lungs
circulatory
ventricles
a lower, and the most muscular, chamber of the heart
circulatory
stomach
an organ that prepares food for absorption by both physical and
chemical activities
digestive system
large intestine
an organ of digestion in which water is reabsorbed
digestive system
colon
the large intestine
digestive system
small intestine
smaller part of intestines that is part of the digestive system
digestive system
duodenum
the first section of the small intestine
digestive system
pepsin
digestive enzyme of the stomach
digestive system
esophagus
a tube connecting the mouth or pharynx to the stomach or crop
digestive system
cardiac sphincter
a circular muscle located between the esophagus and the
stomach
digestive system
spleen
the largest lymphatic organ in the body; serves as a blood reservoir,
disintegrates old red blood cells, and produces lymphocytes and plasmids
digestive system
liver
organ that performs vital metabolic processes including filtration of blood,
secretion of bile, and conversion of sugars into glycogen
digestive system
pancreas
the organ that lies behind the stomach and produces and secretes
insulin, glucagon, and digestive enzymes
digestive system
ileum
the middle portion of the small intestine
digestive system