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85 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The Smallest Working units of Living things are
Cells
Organisms that have cells without Nuclei are called
Prokaryotes
What could produce an image of individual atoms
Scanning Probe Microscope
A lipid Bilayer forms the core of the
Cell Membrane
Which structure is found in the cells of plants but not in animals?
Cell Wall
The Nucleus Stores almost all of a cell's
DNA
Which Organelle harvests energy from sunlight?
Chloroplast
The principal role of the Endoplasmic Reticulum and the Golgi apparatus is to
Package Proteins
According to the endosymbiont hypothesis, early ancestors of mitochondria were
Free living organisms
The Cells main energy-storing compound is
ATP
Pyruvic acid is a product of
Glycolysis
During Vigorous activity large body muscles produce
lactic acid
During respiration the final acceptor of electrons in the electron transport chain is
water
Carbon is released from the Krebs cycle in the form of
Carbon Dioxide
The pigment in green plants, where photosynthesis thakes place, is
Chlorophyll
The Calvin Cycle is part of
The light-independent reactions
The movement of hydrogen ions across a membrane to generate energy to form ATP is called
Chemiosmosis
When a cell doubles its diameter, its internal volume increases by
8
G1, G2, and S are often called
Interphase
Chromosomes first appear in the longest phase of mitosis, called
Prophase
Chromosomes line up accros the middle of the cell during
Metaphase
Each chromosome contains two strands, called
Chromatids
Duplicated chromosomes seperate from each other during
Telophase
The cytoplasm divides during
Cytokinesis
What regulates the timing of the cell cycle
Cyclin
A group of tissues that work together from an
organ
Who was the first person to study heredity scientifically
Gregor Mendel
Crossing different true-breeding stocks produces offspring called
Hybrids
The different forms of a gene are called
Alleles
Which represents a heterozygous genotype
Tt
Gametes are described as
Haploid cells
During Meiosis, homologous chromosomes pair together to form structures called
Tetrads
What are the end products of meiosis
4 Haploid Cells
Crossing-over is the exchange of genetic information between
Homologous chromosomes
The Red,Pink, and White colors of snapdragons are controlled by a gene that shows
Codominance
How many chromosomes do human cells have
46
An example of a multiple allele is
The ABO blood group
A genetic disorder in which the blood does not clot properly is
Hemophilia
People who are resistant to malaria often are heterzygous for which genetic disorder
Sickle Cell Anemia
When cells contain three copies of a chromosome, it is called a
Trisomy
Down Syndrome results from an
Extra Chromosome
A Barr body is a
turned-off X chromosome
What did Griffith name the process that changed rough bacteria to smooth bacteria
Transformation
Hershey and Chase showed that the genetic material of a bacteriophage is
DNA
According to Chargaff's rules, the amount of Adenine in DNA equals the amount of
Thymine
In The Watson-Crick model of DNA, the two strands of the double helix are united by hydrogen bonds between
Nitrogenous Bases
Which molecules are found in chromosomes
DNA and Protein
RNA polymerase is the enzyme that carries out
Transcription
In Translation, amino acids bond to molecules of
rRNA
The lac repressor falls off the operator in the presence of
Lactose
The portions of mRNA that are removed and discarded are called
Introns
The collection of facts, observations, and hypoteses about the history of life is called
Evolutionary theory
Charles Darwin was unaware of the works of
Lyell
Which of the following puzzled Darwin the least
Similarities among Organisms
During Darwin's time, many people believed that the
Earth and its organisms did not change
Vestigial structures in organisms
Serve little or no apparent function
Farmers improve domestic plants and animals by
Selective Breeding
Darwin Proposed that natural selection occurs because of
Natural Variation, The struggle for existence, and Survival of the fittest
The principle that states that all living things share common ancestors is called
Common descent
Which is the source of inheritable variation in organisms
Gene Shuffling
A normal distribution of phenotype is observed for traits controlled by
Many Genes
In genetic terms, evolution is
a change in the relative frequencies of alleles in the gene pool of the species
A helpful mutation causes the corresponding allele's frequency
Increase
Natural Selection acting on a normal distribution of phenotypes in which the fittest individuals correspond to the center of the graph is called
Stabilizing selction
A Random change of the frequency of an allele in a gene pool is called
Genetic Drift
Speciation in nature usually occurs because
Populations become seperated by a geographical barrier
Two Populations that occupy the same habitat but do not share a gene pool
Reproductive isolation
A new species or a species in a new area giving rise to many species, sometimes in a relatively short period of time, is called
Adaptive radiation
Analogous structures are a sign of
Convergent Evolution
The More closely related two organisms are, the
Greater the similarity in their genes
Structures that are similar in appearance and function but differ anatomically are said to be
Analogous
What is not a level of biodiversity
Habitat Diversity
Species Diversity refers to the variety of
living organisms on earth
Genetic Diversity refers to
The Variety of alleles in the species
Changes in DNA can mark time because
Mutations occur at fairly constant rates
The Earth's first atmosphere did not contain
Oxygen
Which is the most helpful element for determining the age of a 10,000 year old fossil
Carbon-14
The system of taxonomy used today was developed by
Linneaus
Related Phyla are grouped into a
Kingdom
The first organisms on Earth were thought to be
Prokaryotes
All bacteria reproduce by
Binary fission
A Virus contains a core of
DNA and RNA
Viruses can reproduce by
The Lytic Cycle
Robby is a
n00b
Who is the most attractive person on the face of the Earth
Daine