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26 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
John Harrison (G)
Made device to measure longitude in 1765.
Pierre Perrault (G)
- Early geology wondered about source of rivers. In 1674 Perrault realized rainfall in Paris could account for outflow of Seine.
Thomas Burnet (G)
Looked for a natural mechanism to explain the Genesis flood. Thought earth smooth, then cracked and would be consumed quickly.
Georg Bauer Agricola (G)
"Fossil" - anything dug out of the earth that resembles an organism.
James Ussher (G)
published a chronology of the events in the Bible. Came up with a date for creation (Oct. 23, 4004 BCE)
William Whiston (G)
Tried to explain biblical events with cometary events.
Benoit de Maillet (G)
Thought earth ancient (2 bya)
cycles of creation/destruction
No biblical flood
earth was covered by water
life from seeds (1730s)
Edward Lhwyd (G)
thought fossils were natural features of geology and not remains of organism (fossil skeptic) - No extinction.
John Ray (G)
re: ammonites
-why would a wise, loving God allow extinction?
Nicholas Steno (G)
Tongue stones (fossilized shark teeth within matrix) a puzzle. Implied process whereby solids imbed in other solids.
2 periods of sedimentation: pre and post flood.
John Woodward (G)
when flood waters receded, heavier objects sank and appear in lower strata, lighter appear in high strata.
Robert Hooke (G)
-Sedimentary rocks not remains of flood
-earth surface could reform over time
- extinction real
A.G. Werner (G)
-Continual recession of ocean
-waters recede, younger layers laid down
-Granite core (earth's original contour)
James Hutton (G)
Wrote the worst book ever written.
-Plutonist (internal heat agent of geological change)
1. Geological Cycles
2. Uniformitarianism
Charles Lyell (G)
Disciple of Hutton's ideas and of uniformitarianism.
Encouraged Darwin to publish but wasn't evolutionist.
What were the 7 early goals of early geology?
1. Exploration and mapping earth
2. Mining and minerology
3. Source of Rivers?
4. Origin of Mountains
5. Fossils 6. Tides 7. Cosmology
Discuss a couple (where couple refers to 1 or 2) features of The Genesis View as per lecture notes.
1. Divine creation recent
2. Only one geological event in history shaped the earth: The Great Flood.
What were the early scientific theories of the earth?
1. Sacred theory of the earth
2. New Theory of the earth
3. Telliamed
Explain the Sacred Theory of the Earth.
Advocated by Burnet
Pre-Flood: smooth shell.
Flood: cracked, water rushed up.
Post: mountains.
Future: mtns erode; underground fire; consumed.
Explain the New Theory of the Earth (3 comets)
William Whiston - 3 comets.
1 - earth comet, elip.
2 - the fall - comet hit induced seasons, tilt, seasons.
3 - flood when went in comet tail
According to the New Theory of the Earth, five comets will affect earth. Explain last 2
4th - strips atmosphere; brings up molten metal; world fire.

5th - Christ's 1000 yr reign
Battle of Armageddon; direct hit.
Explain Telliamed
Benoit de Maillet
- earth covered by water
-life from seeds, which adapt
-acq. characteristics.
Define Neptunism
Neptunism was an attempt to understand geological formations (esp. mountains) as a conseq. of
1. recession of oceans (not flood water)
2. crystalization of minerals.
Explain the two different types of Neptunists.
1. Non-biblical: Werner; continental Europe. No ref. to Genesis.
2. Genesis inspired: nept. could save the deluge. *William Buckland (last genesis-insp. geology)
Neptunists established stratigraphical principle of superposition. Explain.
-states that younger rocks are on top of older ones

-used minerals to date rocks.
What are some of the significant points from Hutton's work?
- time required
- shift from origins to change
- grand canyon young, not old
- earths surface could be reformed endlessly etc.