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50 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
an educated guess
best way to design an experiment/
have hypothesis, variables (indedpendent and dependent) and controls
independent variable
something that you change throughout the experiment
what changes in reaction to the independent variable
somethign that stays the same
Lab: spontaneous generation
For this lab, we put beef broth in different flasks. Then, we with covered then or left them uncovered. The covered flasks had either curvy tubes or straight tubes or no tubes. This lab disproved spontaneous generation.
spontaneous generation
the theory that life cn arouse out of nothing
What does it mean to say that water is polar?
Water is polar because it gives a negative chage off of the oxygen end, and it gives a negative charge off of the hydrogens.
Why is the polarity of water important?
1. water can dissolve polar substances.
2. cohesion - water can stick to itself
3. adhesion - water can stick to other things
pure substance vs. mixture
pure susbtance:
-chemicaly combined
-cannot be physically separated
-forms in a fixed ratio
-physically combined
-can be easily separated
homogenous solution
a solution that is the same through and through
heterogeneous solution
a solutioni in which the materials are not completely spread out
a mixture of substances containing a solute (stuff being dissolved) and a solvent (dissolving agent)
mistures of water and nondissolved materials
four biomolecules?
carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, proteins
biological catalysts made of proteins
How does energy flow through an ecosystem?
Passed up through each trophic leve - 10% moves on to the next level, and 90% escapes as heat
ecological pyramid?
shows the relative amounts of energy and nutrients at each trophic level
activation energy?
energy needed to begin any reaction
source of all energy in an ecosystem?
the sun (glucose)
organisms that produce their own food
organism that relies on another organism for food
nucleus (function, location, structure)
-controls cell processes
-in cell membrane
-made of chromosomes(genetic info in threads), nucleolus(where making of ribosomes begins), and nuclear envelope (encases nucleus and has pores to let material through)
golgi apparatus (function, location, structure)
-processes proteins and distributes them
-attached to nucleus
-made of a membrane and sacks for proteins
chloroplasts (function, location, structure)
-perform photosynthesis
-near edges of cell
-2 layer membrane that contains photosynthetic material called chlorophyll (green)
ribosomes (funtion, location, structure)
-assemble proteins
-in cytoplasm and rough ER
-made of RNA and protein
lysosomes (funtion, location, structure)
-break down waste, food, and other organelles
-in the cytoplasm
-has a membrane that prevents the acid inside to escape into the cell
mitochondria (funtion, location, structure)
-provides energy to cell, cell respiration, recycles and decomposes materials
- has a double membrane with an inner compartment filled with a fliud called the matrix (many folds in the membrane)
endoplasmic reticulum - rough(funtion, location, structure)
-transports proteins
-nuclear envelope and golgi apparatus
- contains ribosomes
endoplasmic reticulum - smooth (funtion, location, structure)
-makes proteins
- nuclear envelop
-no ribosomes
vacuoles (funtion, location, structure)
-holds cell together, deals with wast products, and stores nutrients
-near center of cell
-bubble in membrane
cell structure?
all cells have a cell membrane and cytoplasm
difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?
prokaryotes: no nucles and no membrane bound organelles
eukaryotes: nucleus and membrane bound organelles
cell theory?
1. all living things are composed of cells
2. cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things
3. new cells are produced from existing cells
animal cell vs. plant cell?
plant cells:
-big vacuole, no lysosomes
animal cell:
-small vacuole, no chloroplasts, no cell wall
carbohydrates (make up and function)
made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen - provide energy for all living things
lipids (make up and function)
made of carbon and hydrogen - store energy
nucleic acids (make up and function)
made of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and phosphates
proteins (make up and function)
made of nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen - control the rate of reactions, form bonds and musclces, and transport substances into or out of cells/fight disease
source of the elements making up biomolecules?
carbon - CO2
hydrogen, oxygen - water
nitrate - NO3 in soil
phosphate -PO4 in soil
movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration (molecules move along concentration gradient)
-doesn't require energy
concentration gradient
the gradient on which molecules travel (high to low concentration)
different types of diffusion
simple diffusion - molecules through lipi bilayer
facilitated diffusion - movement of molecules through channel proteins
osmosis - diffusion of water
active transport
the movement of materials from an area of low concentration to one og higher concentration (against concentration gradient)
-requires energy and transport proteins
when there is an equal concentration on both sides of the membrane
higher concentration
lower concentration
same concentration
Two types of reactions in photosynthesis?
light reactions and dark reactions (Calvin Cycle)
light dependent reactions:
what's needed (to start)?
where electrons come from?
electron acceptor at end?
what is produced?
- in thykaloid membrane of chloroplasts
- needs energy from the light and H2O to start
-electrons come form the light splitting water molecules
-end electorn acceptor: NADPH
produces ATP, NADPH, and oxygen