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153 Cards in this Set

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What are the characteristics that all living things have in common?
#1 Organization-Structure

#2 Reproduction

#3 Growth & Development

#4 Ability to adjust to the environment.
List the parts of scientific method starting with observing.
A. Observing
B. Making a Hypothesis
C. Collecting Data
D. Publishing results
E. Forming a theory
F. Developing New Hypothesis
G. Revising the theory
What type of data is collected in quantitive research/data?
Numbers or Measurements used to make graph or table.
What research is usually based on OBSERVED data?
Qualative
What are the STEPS commonly used by scientists in gathering information to test hypotheses and solve problems?

(What is the entire process called)
Scientific Methods
What is topic that is studied in Biology?
The Study of Life
Define stimulus and response.

Give and example.
Stimulus: anything in an organisms internal or external environment that causes the organism to react.

Response: An organisms reaction to a change in its internal or external environment.

Example: Trees drop leaves in fall, conserve water and avoid freezing in winter.
What is a theory?

Is it considered True?
Theory: An Idea or thought that might make sense.


It is not always true.
What region of the Earth supports all living things?
Biosphere
Define Ecology.
The study of interactions that take place between organisms and their environment.
What is a BIOTIC factor?

Give Two examples
All living organisms that inhabit an environment.

Examples:
What is an ABIOTIC factor?


Give two examples.
The non-living parts of an organisms environment.

Example: Air currents, temperature, moisture, light & soil.
Explain the difference between niche and habitat.

What is your habitat and niche?
NICHE: a role or position a species has on its environment.

HABITAT: is where an organism lives out its life.

My Niche/Habitat is:____________
List the three types of symbiosis and define:
MUTUALISM: A symbiotic relationship in which BOTH species benefit.

COMMENSALISM: A symbiotic relationship in which ONE species benefits and the other species is neither harmed or benefited.

PARASITISM: A symbiotic relationship in which a member of ONE species derives benefit at the expense of another species.
Plants and animals are both living organisms.

Which ones are autotrophs and which ones are heterotrophs?
Plants (Producers) - Autotrophs

Animals (Consumers) - Heterotrophs
An organism that eats either animals or plants is called a:
Omnivores
What is a herbivore?

Give one example:
Herbivore: Feeds on grass and other plants.


A deer is an example of a herbivore.
Explain the difference between scavengers and decomposers.

Give on example of each.
SCAVENGERS - Eat animals that have already died.
Example: Vulcher eating dead rabbit.

DECOMPOSERS - bacteria & fungi are decomposers, they break down and release nutrients from dead organisms, nutrient recycling.
Example:
Define the following and know the differences between each one:

Draw a small example:
food chain
food pyramid
food web
FOOD CHAIN: simple model that shows how matter and energy move thru the eco system.

berries mice black bear
Define the following and know the differences between each one:

Draw a small example:
food chain
food pyramid
food web
FOOD PYRAMID
Define the following and know the differences between each one:

Draw a small example:
food chain
food pyramid
food web
FOOD WEB: Model that shows all the possible feeding relationships at each trophic level in a community.

Grass Mouse Hawk
Water is a renewable natural resource, replenished by precipitation.

What cycle is this?
Water Cycle
Treeless land where ground remains frozen except for top few centimeters is which Land Biome?
Tundra
A biome which would include cactus, sand, plants and conserve water is:
Desert
A population that grows until it reaches its carrying capacity usually has the shape of a (an) _____.

Also known as steady growth.
5
What shape curve is represented by exponential growth?

Do bacteria or humans follow this growth pattern?
J Shape
When you study all the growth characteristics of a human population, you are studying its _______.

(You studied this in World Geography as well)
Population Density
What is biodiversity?


Does a rain forest or beach have MORE biodiversity?
Variety of life in an area, usually measured as the number of species that live in an area.

The Rainforest has more biodiversity?
Define Density Dependent

Give Two Examples
Limiting factors such as disease, parasites, or food availability that affect growth of a population.

Examples:
Define: Density Independent


Give two examples
factor such as temperature, storms, floods, drought or habitat disruption that affects all populations, regardless of their density..

Two Examples:
Draw the graphs that represent each of the following.

It is on your populations notes or use your textbook.
Predator / Prey
Draw the graphs that represent each of the following.

It is on your populations notes or use your textbook.
Carrying capacity
Draw the graphs that represent each of the following.

It is on your populations notes or use your textbook.
Boom Bust
Draw the graphs that represent each of the following.

It is on your populations notes or use your textbook.
Exponential Growth
Draw the graphs that represent each of the following.

It is on your populations notes or use your textbook.
S- Shaped Curve
Draw the graphs that represent each of the following.

It is on your populations notes or use your textbook.
J-Shaped Curve
What are the four types of biomolecules?

Give one example of each.

Use the chart you were given in class.
Proteins - enzymes, meat
Carbohydrates - sugar, grains
Lipids - fats, oils & steroids
Nucleic Acid - DNA, RNA
Which biomolecule includes DNA and RNA?
Nucleic Acid
What are steroids and waxes classified as in terms of biomolecules?
Lipids
Which of the following is an example of protein?

a. DNA
b. Beef
c. Oils
D. Enzymes
Enzymes
Central Vacuole
Stores, Food, Water and waste
Lysosomes
Organelles that contain digestive enzymes; digest excess or worn out organelles, food particles, and engulfed viruses or bacteria.
Golgi apparatus
organelle in eukaryotic cells with a system of flattened tubular membranes, sorts and pack proteins and sends them to their appropriate destinations.
Mitochondria
Eukaryotic membrane-bound organelles that transform energy stored in food molecules; has a highly folded innner membrane that produces energy-storing molecules.
Chloroplasts
Chlorophyll containing organelles found in the cells of green plants and some protists; capture light energy and converted it to chemical energy.
What type of solution causes a cell to shrink because of osmosis?
Hypertonic
What is the diffusion of water through semi-permeable membrane?
Osmosis
What kind of transport does not require energy from a cell?

What kind must use energy?
Passive transport - requires no energy


Active transport - requires energy
Which type of solution produces no change in cell because of osmosis?
isotonic
Which type of solution causes a cell to swell because of osmosis?
hypotonic
The cell's DNA is found in what organelle?
Nucleus
This type of cell has a nucleus and membrane bound organelles.
?
Long, whip-like structures that aid in movement are called
flagella
This type of cell is a single-celled organism that does not have a nucleus
?
At which organelle are proteins made?
?
What controls what enters and leaves the cell?
cell wall
What structure surrounds and protects the cell membrane of a PLANT and is not found in animal cells?
Cell Wall
What can happen to a cell placed in a hypertonic solution?
It will shrink
What is the difference between exoctosis and endocytosis?
Exocytosis - wastes leaves the cell


Endocytosis - things enter the cell
Circle the correct words that pertain to active transport:

It moves substances AGAINST / WITH
a concentration gradient.
WITH
Circle the correct words that pertain to active transport:

It REQUIRES / DOES NOT REQUIRE energy from the cell.
REQUIRES
Circle the correct words that pertain to active transport:

An example of active transport is EXOCYTOSIS / ENDOCYTOSIS
Both Exocytosis and Endocytosis
Photosynthesis
Process by which autotrophs, such as algae and plants, trap energy from sunlight with chlorophyll and use the energy to convert carbon dioxide and water into simple sugars
Cellular respiration
Chemical process where mitochondria break down food molecules to produce ATP; The 3 stages of cellular respiration are glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and the electron transport chain.
Chloroplast
Chlorophyll containing organelles found in the cells of green plants and some protists; capture light energy and converted it to chemical energy.
Aerobic
Chemical reactions that DO require the presence of oxygen
Anerobic
Chemical reactions that do not require the presence of oxygen
Fermentation
When cells go with out oxygen for a short period of time, anaerobic process (called fermentation) follows glycolysis and provides means to continue producing ATP until oxygen is available again. 2 - Kinds: Lactic Acid Fermentation and Alcoholic Fermentation.
How is energy produced from ATP?


What must happen to the ATP molecule?
?
Chlorophyll is a pigment used in photosynthesis that is found in what organelle in the cell?
Chloroplast
Photosynthesis consists of two stages of reactions. List them and tell what the products and reactants are:
Stage 1: Light Dependent reactions
Product: Oxygen & Energy
Reactants: Sunlight & H2O

Stage 2: Calvine Cycle
Product: Glucose
Reactants: CO2 & Energy
List the three stages of aerobic respiration:
1. Glycolysis

2. Citric Acid

3. Electron Transport Chain
There are two types of cellular respiration. Fill out the chart below:

Type of respiration: AEROBIC
1. Oxygen Required?
2. List Steps / Stages or types.
3. # of ATP produced.
Oxygen is required.
Glycosis, Krebs cycle, Electronic Transfer
36 ATP Produced
There are two types of cellular respiration. Fill out the chart below:

Type of respiration: ANEROBIC
1. Oxygen Required?
2. List Steps / Stages or types.
3. # of ATP produced.
Oxygen is not required



2 ATP are produced
Stage of Mitosis described below:

The nuclear membrane disappears and the chromosomes double.
Prophase
Stage of Mitosis described below:

The paired chromosomes line up at the equator (middle)
Metaphase
Stage of Mitosis described below:

The pinching of the cell membrane is completed, thereby forming two new cells.
Telephase
Stage of Mitosis described below:

Chromatin replicates
Interphase
Stage of Mitosis described below:

The centromere split causing the sister chromatids to move away from the equator.
Anaphase
Draw a simple picture of each phase.

This is in your notes or textbook.

INTERPHASE
Drawing:
Draw a simple picture of each phase.

This is in your notes or textbook.

PROPHASE
Drawing:
Draw a simple picture of each phase.

This is in your notes or textbook.

METAPHASE
Drawing:
Draw a simple picture of each phase.

This is in your notes or textbook.

ANAPHASE
Drawing:
Draw a simple picture of each phase.

This is in your notes or textbook.

TELOPHASE
Drawing:
What is the name of the process when a DNA molecule is copied?
Replication
During what process is Messenger RNA formed?
Transcription
During what process is Transfer RNA formed?
Translation
During what process are Proteins formed?
Translation
During what process are Amino Acids formed?
Translation
The current model used to explain the structure of DNA was proposed by what 2 scientists?
Watson and Crick
List the three parts of a nucleotide.
simple sugar
phosphate group
nitrogenous base
How many bases in a row does it take to make a codon?
3 bases
How many bases in a row does it take to make a anticodon?
3 Bases
What molecule contains condons?
mRNA
What molecule contians Anticodons?
tRNA
Where does translation take place in the cell?
nucleus
Where does transcription take place in the cell?
cytoplasm ------ribosome
List the four bases found in DNA.



Which bases bond with each other
Adenine --- Thymine

Cytosine --- Guanine
Transcription and translation are both required for what process.
DNA Replications
What do amino acids form?
Protein
If the mRNA strand is CGUA, the tRNA strand is?


What process is this part of?
GCHU


Translation
A mutation is any mistake or change in the ____________________
DNA Sequence
What is an environmental agent that can cause a change in DNA?
Radiation
Given the mRNA strand. Write the correct DNA strand.


mRNA Strand:

UGC AUG AGC UCA
DNA Strand:

ACG ATC ACG AGT
Replicate the given strand of DNA.

GCTGAGCTTAGGATT
CGACTCGAATCCTAA
Match DNA, mRNA, tRNA with the characteristics below.


Involved in transcription
mRNA
Match DNA, mRNA, tRNA with the characteristics below.


Involved in translation
tRNA
Match DNA, mRNA, tRNA with the characteristics below.


Brings the message from the nucleus
mRNA
Match DNA, mRNA, tRNA with the characteristics below.


CODON
mRNA
Match DNA, mRNA, tRNA with the characteristics below.

ANTICODON
tRNA
Change the following mRNA codons into the appropriate amino acid.

Use the chart in your textbook.

UGU
ACA UGU
Change the following mRNA codons into the appropriate amino acid.

Use the chart in your textbook.

GCU
CGA GCU
Change the following mRNA codons into the appropriate amino acid.

Use the chart in your textbook.

AGA
UCU AGA
Change the following mRNA codons into the appropriate amino acid.

Use the chart in your textbook.

UCU
AGA UCU
Gregor Mendel used what kind of plants?


Explain why?
Peaplant


Easier to see phenotype
When Gregor Mendel crossed true-breeding (purebred) tall plants (TT) with true-breeding short plants (tt), what would the offspring all be.

Show in a punnett square all the offspring were tall because?
Phenotype

Genotype

Punnett Square:
The allele that is always expressed is called _____________ and is represented by a __________ letter.
1. dominant

2. capitol
A ______________ allele only shows when the gene is homozygous for the given trait. It is represented by a ____________ letter.
1. recessive

2. lowercase
Organisms that have two identical alleles for a particular trait are said to be ________________. This means that they got the same thing from both parents.
homozygous
Traits
Characteristic that is inherited; can be either dominate or recessive.
Punnett Squares
Shorthand way of finding the expected proportions of possible genotypes in the offspring of a cross.
Hybrid
Offspring formed by parents having different forms of a trait.
Purebred
?
Genetics
Branch of biology that studies heredity
What do Punnett Squares show?
The percent of offspring that will inherit a trait.
A hybrid is an organism that receives different genetic traits from who?
Parents
Genetics is the study of:
heredity
If a person is HETEROZYGOUS DOMINATE for brown hair this is an example of a genotype or phenotype?
phenotype

Visible characteristics.
When several genes influence a trait?
Polygenic traits
When an individual displays a trait that is intermediate between the two parents.
Incomplete dominance
Two dominate alleles are expressed at the same time.
Codominance
Genes with three or more alleles
Multiple alleles
How many chromosomes are shown in a NORMAL human karyotype.
23
In humans the 23rd chromosome pair are called.
sex chromosomes
In humans, a male has what two chromosomes? ___________________
XY
In humans, a female has what two chromosomes? ___________________
XX
What percentage of human sperm cells carry an X chromosome?
ALL
In Down Syndrome, the individual has three copies of chromosome #21.


This is an example of: _______________
?
Most sex-linked genes are located on which chromosome?
Y
Which of the following statements are true?

a. Females cannot have hemophilia

b. The father of a colorblind boy
may be colorblind

c. A sex-linked allele in a male will be shown on the Y chromosome all the time.

d. The mother of a colorblind boy must be colorblind.
?
The failure of chromosomes to separate during meiosis is called?
?
This type of chart is used to determine whether or not a person has inherited the normal number of chromosomes.
Punnett Square
A sex-linked trait would be more common in a male or female?

WHY
MALE

Because:
What combination of sex chromosomes produces a human female?
2 X's
What chromosomes determines the sex of a child?
Sex chromosomes
Why are X-linked traits expressed in males even if they are recessive?
Because males only have one X
During which phase is a karyotype taken?


WHY?
Metaphase


Because it is easier to see.
What is a carrier?

Express in terms of genotype and phenotype!
Genotype X - X
Having only one copy of a chromosomes instead of two is called?
monosomy
Who determines the sex of a child?
FATHER
Two parents that have hemoaphilia may produce and offspring who does not have hemophilia.

TRUE or FALSE
FALSE
Primary Sucession
rebuilding of an area where no soil was.
Secondary Sucession
rebuilding of an area destroyed by natural disasters or human actions.