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104 Cards in this Set

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Bacteria Parts
Cell Wall
Cell Membrane
Nucleoid
Plasmids
Ribosomes
Cytoplasm
Bacteria - Cell Wall Parts
Flagella (long)
Fimbriae (short)
Bacteria - Nucleoid
Circular DNA
Plasmids
Extra Nucleoid DNA
Bacteria Reproduction
Binary Fission (Mitosis)
Binary Fission (steps)
1) DNA makes a copy
2) Cell divides in two
3) Identical cells are produced
Endospores
*Response to abnormal environments

*Forms a chromosome copy inside protective layers

*Extreme temperature or radiation may destroy them
Bacteria - Metabolism
*Producers

*Consumers

*Decomposers
Symbiotic Lifestyle Types
Mutualistic
Commensalistic
Parasitic
Mutualistic
both benefit - intestine
Commensalistic
one benefits, other not hurt or helped - skin
Parasitic
one benefits, other hurt - disease causing
Bacteria Classification
Shape (round, rod, curved)

Arrangements (clusters, chains)

Dye Absorbtion
Bacteria Shapes
Bacillus
Coccus
Spirillus
Bacillus
rod
Coccus
circle
Spirillus
curved
Cyanobacteria
*Photosynthetic - many colors

*Often found in groups

*Move (glide, oscillate)

*Some produce heterocysts that are involved in Nitrogen Fixation
Bacterial Illnesses
Syphillus, Cholera, Tetanus, Typhoid, Anthrax, Plague, Salmonella, Lyme, Botulism, Meningitis, Pneumonia
Water and Slime Molds
*Extracellular digestion

*Form sporangia and spores - develop into amoeba-like cells - form masses
Algae begin (kingdom)
Plant Kingdom
Protozoans begin (kingdom)
Animal Kingdom
Water/Slime Molds begin (kingdom)
Fungi Kingdom
Algae Illnesses
Dinoflagellates - red tide
Protozoa Illnesses
Dysentery, Giardia, Pneumonia
Water Molds Problem
Potato Famine of 1840s
Algae (beneficial aspects)
*Produce major amount of oxygen

*Agar - gel electrophoresis

*Foods
Protozoa (beneficial aspects)
Indicate to geologist where oil may be found

Early food for many of our foods
Viruses (structure)
Protein coat or caspid
DNA or RNA
Tail
Envelope
Cell Membrane from host cell
Viruses (classification)
Type of nucleic acid (DNA, RNA)

Size and shape of capsid

Presence or absence of envelope or tail
Evolution of viruses
Uncertain

Perhaps a step on the road to life

Conection to host cell suggets viruses may have evolved after cells so maybe not a step on the road to life
Virus Reproduction
1)Invades cell
2) Uses DNA/materials of cell
3)Makes new viruses
4) May or may not kill cell to release virus
Retroviruses
RNA virus with a DNA stage
Contains reverse transcriptase

HIV is an example
Viral Infections
Specific type of host: bacteria, plant or animal

Some human viruses specific for type of tissue

No cure - antibiotics do not work - treat symptoms only

Innoculation/Vaccination

ex. Polio
Viral Illnesses
Ebola, Chicken Pox, HIV, Smallpox, Cold/Flu, Hepatitis, Rabies, Polio

Pneumonia, Meningitis (can also be bacterial)
Viroids
RNA without capsid

Plants affected
Prion
Protein particles only

Animals affected (i.e. Mad Cow Disease)
Fungi Structure
Multi-celled
Nucleus
Cell Wall
Organelles
NO chloroplasts
Fungi Reproduction
sexually and asexually

Major part of the fungus is hidden from view - inside what is being decomposed.

We see reproductive part only.

One spore lands, sends out hyphae.

Meet hyphae from another spore.

Combine nuclei

Spores form from this combination
Fungi Classification
Based on how the spores are held
Bread molds (zygospore)
Sac and Cup Fungi (Imperfect)
Club Fungi (Gill Fungi)
Bread Molds
Destroy many food, not just breads.
Sac/Cup and Imperfect Fungi (benefits)
Making foods (yeast)
Flavoring cheeses (bleu cheese)
Foods themselves (morels, truffles)
Medicines (penicillin)

Microscopic
Club Fungi
Typical mushrooms
Puffballs
Shelf fungus

Gills visible
Fungal Relationships
Lichen - fungi and a photosynthetic green algae or cyanobacteria

Controlled parasitism

Photosynthetic partner survives but fungi dies without the other
Mycorrhizae
Mutualism - plant and fungi
Plant provides food for fungi
Fungi provides larger source of water and nutrients
Very few plants are not this way
Fungal Diseases
Mildews, Athlete's foot, Ringworm, Yeast Infections
Plant Kingdom - Protist Connection
Algae were photosynthetic
Had various pigments already present.
But are dependent on water (diffusion)
Water Dependence
In water, need only diffusion for transport of water.
On land, not surrounded by water, so diffusion not as good.
Need new transport system.

Water buoyancy supports large size - not on land. So need support system.
Spores
Carry DNA for new plant to new location - have no special adaptations for transport.

Genetically similar organisms compete with one another. Spores are beneficial to get plant away from parent.
Liverworts and Mosses
Small - diffusion okay.
Live in moist areas - water okay.
Small - no need for support system.
Sperm problem: only produce when very wet.
Moss Reproduction
1) Moisture covers the plant
2)Sperm travels from one moss plant to another.
3) Capsule forms from union of sperm and egg
4) Sperm and egg make sporaphyte (made in gametophyte)
5) Spores released from capsule
Mosses and Liverworts
Non-vascular
Spore/Seedless
Ferns and Fern Allies
Vascular
Lignin strengthens cell walls
Spore reproduction
Ferns and Fern Allies (reproduction)
Still need water, but gametophyte small and easily covered by water for sperm.

Reproduce by means of spores, not seeds.
Importance of Seeds
Seed coat - can survive inclement times, protective layer.

Developing embryo - already present.

Food source for embryo - present in the form of starch.
Gymnosperms
gymno - naked; sperm - seed

Reproduce and form seeds.

Spore is one step in developing pollen and egg cells.
Gymnosperm reproduction
The seed has few layers of cells around it at the time of pollination.

Pollen lands on ovule.

Seeds will form.

Pollen has adaptations to be carried on the wind.
Angiosperms
Flowering plants.
Flowering trees.
Grasses.
Seed Adaptations
Animals carry them.

Some seeds can pass through digestive tract and still germinate.
Gymno vs. Angio
Angio: Better at getting pollen to proper plants (not dependent on wind)
Better at getting seeds away from the mother plant.
More energy available due to climate.

Gymno: Smaller leaves, less water loss. Cone-shaped to get sun to all leaves. Some are evergreens, so photosynthesize year round.
Domain Eukarya
Animal Kingdom
Eukarya Characteristics
Multi-celled
Mobile
Heterotrophic
Classification
Body form: Coelomate, Pseudoceolomate, Aceolomate

Symmetry: Asymmetric, Radially Symmetric, Bilaterally Symmetric

Invertebrate, Vertebrate
Coelomate
body wall, fluid filled cavity, no supporting gut

Some cushioning from movement
Acoelomate
Movement impacts digestion

Body wall, gut, tissue layers between
Pseudocoelomate
Some cushioning from movement

Body wall, tissue layers, fluid filled cavity, gut
Asymmetric
Free-form
Radially Symmetric
like a wheel
Bilaterally Symmetric
right and left sides
Sponges
Asymmetric
Aceolomate
Invertebrate
Cnidarians
Radially Symmetric
Acoelomate
Invertebrate
Flatworms
Bilaterally Symmetric
Acoelomate
Invertebrate
Roundworms/Rotifers
Bilaterally Symmetric
Pseudocoelomate
Invertebrate
Segmented Worms, Arthropods, Molluscs
Bilaterally Symmetric
Coelomates
Invertebrates

Special coiled gut increases nutrition
Echinoderms
Bilaterally symmetric as juveniles, radial as adults
Coelomate
Invertebrate
Chordates
Bilaterally Symmetric
Coelomate
Invertebrate/Vertebrate

All have notochord
All have hollow dorsal nerve cord
Notocord to Vertebrate
Cartilage notocord develops into individual vertebrate in embriaonic stages of vertebrate.

Notocord to Vertebral Column.

Gives flexibility while retaining strength.
Jawless to Jawed
Allows for more diverse foods and better nutrition.
Gills to Lungs
Allows for gas exchange on land.

Amphibians - gills as juvenile, lungs as adult.

Air or swim bladder - possible transition.
Fins to Legs
Allows for better movement in water and on land.

Bones in fish fins may be start of leg development.
Fertilization and Development
External to Internal Reproduction.

Need fewer sperm/eggs.

Increases likelihood of offspring surviving to birth.

Further parental care ensures more survival.
External Development
External Fertilization
External Development

Ex. Marsupials - born less developed, move to pouch
Evolutionary Trends in Chordates
1. Invertebrate to Vertebrate
2. Jawless to Jawed
3. Fins to Limbs
4. Gills to Lungs
5. External to Internal Fertilization and Development
What separates humans from apes?
Brain size.
Upright walking.
Tooth/Jaw/Facial Features
Foramen Magnum
Gorilla is closer to back
Human is closer to middle
Bipedalism
Human has angle at knee
Cat is straight at knee

Acetabulum and Sacrum far apart in ape, close in humans

Great apes are quadrupeds
Human walks upright
Feet
Gorilla more hand-like
Chimp more hand-like
Bonobo more hand-like
Human not hand-like
Brain Size
Human is larger
Face
Gorilla - angled due to protruding jaw

Human - straighter
Large Canines/Diastema
Gorilla has both
Human does not
Jaw differences
Gorilla - rectangular
Human - arched
Sahelanthropus
Nothing below skull
May be more chimp ancestor
Orrorin
Bipedal
No skull
May be more human than chimp
Ardipithecus Ramidus
Bipedal
Small brain
May be Australopithicus
Not a lot of material found thus far.
Australopithicus
Comparative Anatomy
Transitional between human/chimp ancestor
Australopithicus afarensis
Footprints
Extensive bones - "Lucy" and "First family"
Kenyanthropus
Controversy: Australopithicus or not?

Bipedal
Small brain
Parenthropus Robustus
Also known as Australopithicus

Some differents in hands between Paranthropus and Australopithicus

Some evidence of tool making

Responsible for moving Lucy out of main line of human ancestry
Parenthropus Robustus africanus
First specimen to show bipedalism before brain size

Taung Child
Homo Habilis
Tool use and manufacture
Large brain size
Homo Erectus
Even larger brain
Controlled use of fire
Thus movement to other areas
Homo Neandertalensis
Improved tools
Brain size - bigger than us
Poorer speech ability
May have had beginnings of culture - burial rights
Homo Sapiens
Anatomically Modern
Complex speech possible
Culture present
Paintings used pigments and methods found in aboriginal groups today
Can tell about animals/hunting
Tools and jewelry
I hate Biology 101.
with a passion.