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75 Cards in this Set

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Hydrochloric Acid
the majority of gastric acid, the human digestive fluid. In a complex process and at a large energetic burden, it is secreted by parietal cells (also known as oxyntic cells). These cells contain an extensive secretory network (called canaliculi) from which the HCl is secreted into the lumen of the stomach.
A bitter brownish-yellow or greenish-yellow secretion produced by the liver, stored in the gallbladder, and discharged into the duodenum where it aids the process of digestion.
a slippery secretion from the lining of the mucous membranes
1. A complex carbohydrate that forms the main constituent of the cell wall in most plants; A polysaccharide containing many glucose units in parallel chains.
A polysaccharide that is the main form of carbohydrate storage in animals; converted to glucose as needed. stored in liver
is a complex carbohydrate which is insoluble in water; it is used by plants as a way to store excess glucose. polysaccharide
A simple monosaccharide sugar with the formula C6H12O6 which is a principal source of energy for most living things.
amino acid
Any of the twenty naturally occurring α-amino acids (having the amino, and carboxylic acid groups on the same carbon atom), and a variety of side chains, that combine, via peptide bonds, to form proteins.
A small protein containing up to 100 amino acids.
the monomer comprising DNA or RNA biopolymer molecules. Each nucleotide consists of a nitrogenous heterocyclic base (or nucleobase), which can be either a double-ringed purine or a single-ringed pyrimidine; a five-carbon pentose sugar (deoxyribose in DNA or ribose in RNA); and a phosphate group.
a chemical compound with the formula HOCH2CH(OH)CH2OH. This colorless, odorless, viscous liquid is widely used in pharmaceutical formulations.
fatty acid
Any of a class of aliphatic carboxylic acids, of general formula CnH2n+1COOH, that occur combined with glycerol as animal or vegetable oils and fats. Only those with an even number of carbon atoms are normally found in natural fats
nucleic acid
Any acidic, chainlike biological macromolecule consisting of multiply repeat units of phosphoric acid, sugar and purine and pyrimidine bases; they are involved in the preservation, replication and expression of hereditary information in every living cell
a small projection from a mucous membrane, particularly those found in the intestines
structures that increase the surface area of cells by approximately 600 fold (human), thus facilitating absorption and secretion.
microscopic blood vessels
the small lymph vessels found in the center of a villus
Open Circulatory System
the blood flows directly into the body tissues
Closed Circulatory System
a system in which the blood is always contained within tubes or vessels in the body
Arteriol System
small diameter blood vessel that extends and branches out from an artery and leads to capillaries.
Venule System
a small blood vessel that allows deoxygenated blood to return from the capillary beds to the larger blood vessels called veins.
Capillary exchange
the smallest of a body's blood vessels, measuring 5-10 μm, which connect arterioles and venules, and are important for the interchange of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and other substances between blood and tissue cells.
Blood Contents
Red Blood Cells

White Blood Cells


Respiartory Exchange Surface
Large animals cannot maintain gas exchange by diffusion across their outer surface. They developed a variety of respiratory surfaces that all increase the surface area for exchange, thus allowing for larger bodies. A respiratory surface is covered with thin, moist epithelial cells that allow oxygen and carbon dioxide to exchange. Those gases can only cross cell membranes when they are dissolved in water or an aqueous solution, thus respiratory surfaces must be moist.
invaginated Gill
One of the vascularized organs located within slits in the side of a fish's head that enable it to breathe.
Vertebrate Mammal
animals with backbones or spinal columns.
Invaginated Lung
A biological organ that extracts oxygen from the air.
a small air sac in the lungs, where oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged with the blood.
The excretion of undigested food as faeces.
The process, in the gastrointestinal tract, by which food is converted into substances that can be utilized by the body.
A gaseous compound of hydrogen and nitrogen, NH3, with a pungent smell and taste.
A water-soluble organic compound, CO(NH2)2, formed by the metabolism of proteins and excreted in the urine.
Uric Acid
a bicyclic heterocyclic phenolic compound, formed in the body by the metabolism of protein and excreted in the urine (or in avian faeces)
Kidney function
filter wastes (such as urea) from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine.
A slender projection of a nerve cell which conducts nerve impulses from a synapse to the body of the cell; a dendron.
A nerve fibre which is a long slender projection of a nerve cell, and which conducts nerve impulses away from the body of the cell to a synapse.
Terminal Branches
a specialized structure at the end of the axon that is used to release neurotransmitter chemicals and communicate with target neurons.
A cell of the nervous system, which conducts nerve impulses; consisting of an axon and several dendrites. Neurons are connected by synapses.
the separation, alignment or orientation of something into two opposed poles
a charged particle
difficult to treat
Inhibitory nerve
A nerve conveying impulses that diminish functional activity in a part.
The junction between the terminal of a neuron and either another neuron or a muscle or gland cell, over which nerve impulses pass.
Any substance, such as acetylcholine or dopamine, responsible for sending nerve signals across a synapse between two neurons.
A bundle of neurons with their connective tissue sheaths, blood vessels, and lymphatics.
Central Nervous System
Brain and spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous system
part of the nervous system, and consists of the nerves and neurons that reside or extend outside the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord) to serve the limbs and organs, for example.
Sympathetic nervous system
The part of the autonomic nervous system that under stress raises blood pressure and heart rate, constricts blood vessels and dilates the pupils.
sensory nerve
nerves that receive sensory stimuli, such as how something feels and if it is painful.
motor nerve
allow the brain to stimulate muscle contraction
Associative Neuron
a term used to describe a neuron which has two different common meanings.
the process by which cells obtain chemical energy by the consumption of oxygen and the release of carbon dioxide
The process by which plants and other autotrophs generate carbohydrates and oxygen from carbon dioxide, water, and light energy in chloroplasts.
Excited Electrons pigments
Red 1st excited state
Blue 2nd excited state
Epidermis leaf
the outer single-layered group of cells covering a plant, especially the leaf and young tissues of a vascular plant including stems and roots.
Most of the interior of the leaf between the upper and lower layers of epidermis is a parenchyma (ground tissue) or chlorenchyma tissue
Vascular Bundle
part of the transport system in vascular plants. The transport itself happens in vascular tissue, which exists in two forms: xylem and phloem.
one of the tiny pores in the epidermis of a leaf or stem through which gases and water vapor pass
Guard cell
The pore is formed by a pair of specialized parenchyma cells known as guard cells which are responsible for regulating the size of the opening.
parasympathetic nervous system
One of the divisions of the autonomic nervous system, based between the brain and the spinal cord, that slows the heart and relaxes muscles.
the layer of cutin that covers a plant's epidermis
the plastids that contain chlorophyll; the sites of photosynthesis in eukaryotic cells
the photosynthetic membranes in the chloroplast which are arranged int he shape of flattened sacks
stacks of thylakoids in plant chloroplasts
Light Reaction
in photosynthesis, a series of reactions requiring light in which water or some other compound is oxidized and ATP and NADPH2 are produced
Dark reaction
the series of reactions in photosynthesis in which carbon fixation occurs and for which light is not required
Calvin Cycle
The Calvin-Benson cycle takes carbon dioxide and converts it to glucose, which the plant uses for energy.
s the main phenomenon driving the flow of water in the xylem tissues of large plants.
the compound in which energy released by cellular respiration is stored
Meristematic Cells
in plants, a region or tissue composed of cells that undergo or are capable of repeated cell division
A class of plant growth substance (often called phytohormones or plant hormones) which play an essential role in coordination of many growth and behavioral processes in the plant life cycle.
the movement of a plant towards or away from light
Cambium stem
separates the xylem and phloem which bring about secondary thickening of the stem
A vascular tissue in land plants primarily responsible for the distribution of water and minerals taken up by the roots; also the primary component of wood.
A vascular tissue in land plants primarily responsible for the distribution of sugars and nutrients manufactured in the shoot.