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44 Cards in this Set

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Hydrosphere
all of the aquatic environments including oceans, lakes, ice caps, etc and the life native to those regions
Lithosphere
all of the terrestrial environments of the crust such as soil, rock, etc and life native to these regions
Six Biogeographical realms
neartic- NA
neotropical SA
Ethopian Africa
Palearctic europe and N Asia
Oriental central and S Asia
Austrailian
Biome
a large region of land characterized by habitat conditions and community structure, including its unique species
Dry shrublands and dry woodlands
found in western or southern coastal regions, semiarid lands, more rainfall than desert. Summers are long, hot and dry. Most rainfall occurs during the mild winter period. Hardneded tough evergreen leaves.
Evergreen broadleaf forests
tall trees growing close together, dense canopy. Found in tropical zones of africa, east indies, southeast asia, s.a. and c.a.
deciduous broadleaf forests
found at temperate latitudes, rainfall is not a constant all year long.
littoral zone
shoreline
limnetic zone
portion of lake away from the shore line that will receive light penetration
profundal zone
the portion of lake away from the shoreline that will receive light penetration, below the limnetic zone
oligotrophic lakes
deep, clear and low nutrient levels
eutropic lakes
shallow, murky and have high nutrient levels due to high levels of primary productivity
thermal inversion
occurs when weather conditions trap a layer of cold dense air below a layer of warm air
subsistence agriculture
runs on energy inputs from sunlight and human labor
animal assisted agriculture
subsistence level agriculture which also utilizes animal labor
population
a group of individuals of the same species occupying a specific geographic region
per capita
births, deaths, and other factors that can affect population size are measured in terms of individual rates
exponential growth
a dramatic increase in something, in this case individuals in a population J shaped pattern
biotic potential
occurs under optimal conditions of temperature, resources, etc. Is the max. rate of increase per individual
density dependent controls
factor that kick in when a population size grows to the point where it begins to reach the carrying capacity
density independent factors
factors which will affect growth regardless of population density
demographic transition model
a demographic transition model correlates the changes that occur with population growth with the changes that occur during economic development
Demographic transition model preindustrial stage
occurs before medical and technological advances have been established or are widespread. Death rates are high due to limiting facors. Birth rates are high
DTModel transitional stage
when medical and technological developments are becoming established and industrialization is beginning. Death rates drop, but brith rates still high. Overall pop growth is high
DTModel industrial stage
when medicine and technology are effectively decreasing the limiting facors on the population. Decrease in birth rates. Death rates are lower people living longer
neutral relationship
when two species do not affect one another directly
commensalism
one benefits and the other is unaffected, it neither benefits nor is harmed
mutualism
both species benefit
interspecific competition
2 species are trying to utilize the same resource in the same way. Both species will be harmed by this interaction to some extent.
climax community
stable, self perpetuating array of species in equilibrium with one another and with their environment
primary productivity
is the rate at which primary producers secure and store some amount of energy in their tissues during a specific interval of time
gross primary productivity
total rate of photosynthesis for the entire ecosystem during a specific time interval
hydrologic cycle
allow for the cycling of hydrogen and oxygen atoms as water also known as the global water cycle
atmospheric cycle
cycling of atmospheric gases such as oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide
nuclear fusion
joining of 2 atoms (H) to form one atom (Helium) this is done by the sun
nuclear fission
is the splitting of an HE atom to release 2 atoms (H) and energy
greenhouse effect
burning of fossil fuels, which are hydrocarbons, releases gases such as CO2 and CH4
ozone is at it's thinnest
between september and october, thinnest at poles
ozone is the thickest
at the equator
intertidal zones
difficult areas to live in due to problems of high tide and low tide and the pounding of the waves
benthic
biomes of the ocean floor
pelagic
biomes of ocean water, two divisions, neritic zone and oceanic
trophic levels
hiearchy of feeding relationships, first is producers, herbivores, carnivores, carnivores that feed on carnivores
replacement level
when birth rates=death rates; when we see zero population growth. +2.1 means that we have 2.1 briths for each death