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238 Cards in this Set

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HETEROTROPHIC
organism unable to make its own organic compounds; no chloroplast; ingest food-eating; ie. animals
RESPIRATION
for all animals, exchange of environmental oxygen with CO2 from cells; start in cytyoplasm & end in mitochondria;
ZYGOTE
first cell of a new individual, formed by fusion of a sperm nucleus with egg nucleus at fertilization; produced after fertilization; multicellular embryo;
EMBRYO
of animals, a multicelled body formed by way of cleavage, gastrulation, or other early developmental events; specific embryonic cell layers from zygote form body tissues
DIPLOBLASTIC
of zygote: 2 germ(embryonic) layers=ectoderm & endoderm
TRIPLOBLASTIC
3 germ layers=ectoderm, mesoderm, & endoderm
ECTODERM
the first-formed, outermost primary tissue layer of animal embryos; gives rise to nervous system tissues and integument's outer layer; outer covering
ENDODERM
inner primary tissue layer of animal embryos; source of inner gut lining and derived organs; gut(digestive tube)
MESODERM
primary tissue layer of all large, complex animals; gives rise to many internal organs and part of the integument; muscles + most other organs between gut and outer covering
GERM LAYERS
embryonic
GUT
digestive tube
RADIAL SYMMETRY
animal body plan having four or more roughly equivalent parts around a central axis; 2 or more planes of symmetry; ie. diploblastic organisms
BILATERAL SYMMETRY
body plan with axis from anterior to posterior end, separated into right and left sides, and dorsal and ventral surface; 1 plane of symmetry(2 sided);
DORSAL/VENTRAL
backside/underside
ANTERIOR/POSTERIOR
head/tail
COMPLETE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
body tube with a mouth at one end and an anus at the other; evolutionarily allowed for more efficient digestive systems-larger body size
INCOMPLETE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
food intake and waste output occur through a singe opening
HYDROSTATIC SKELETON
a fluid-filled cavity or cell mass against which contractile cells act; against which muscles can work
ACOELOMATE
absence of a fluid-filled cavity between gut and body wall; no coelom; ie. flatworms; epidermis + gut cavity
PSEUDOCOELOMATE/PSEUDOCOELOM
false cavity; ie. roundworms/nematodes; epidermis + gut cavity + unlined body cavity
COELOMATE/COELOM
a peritoneum-lined cavity between the gut and bodywall of most animals; true cavity; ie. segmented worms & others; epidermis + gut cavity + lined body cavity (peritoneum or mesoderm)
SEGMENTATION
of animal body plans, a series of units that may or may not be similar to one another in appearance; repeated series of body units (not necessarily the same); ie head + thorax + abdomen of insects
SPIRAL CLEAVAGE
in protostomes; cell fates determined very early; mitosis
DETERMINATE EMBRYO
animals are-body plan determined during embryonic development
RADIAL CLEAVAGE
in deuterostomes; cell fates determined later in development; more advanced
INDETERMINATE EMBRYO
body plans not determined during embryonic development
PROTOSTOME
lineage of coelomate, bilateral animals that includes mollusks, annelids, and arthropods; the first indentation to form in protostome embryos becomes the mouth; cell fates determined very early-spiral cleavage;
DEUTEROSTOME
bilateral animal in which the anus forms from first indentation in the embryo; cell fates determined later in development-radial cleavage; exs=echinoderms, chordates
INVERTEBRATES
NOT monophyletic because they do not have one trait they evolved from
PORIFERA
aquatic sponges-usually marine; no body symmetry; mulitcellular but no tissue or organs; sessile filter-feeders; circulate water thru body; collar cells; gelatinous layer; bisexual; asexual reproduction; no nervous system
MARINE
from the ocean
FILTER-FEEDER
animal that filters food from a current of water directed through a body part; collect food particles from water
SESSILE
animal that remains attached to a substrate during some stage of its life cycle
SPONGOCOEL
central cavity of sponge
COLLAR CELL
in sponge body wall, a flagellated cell with a "collar" of food-trapping villi; flagellated cells that produce water current
MICROVILLI
what traps food particles in collar cells
CHOANOFLAGELLATE
due to collar cells-look a lot like ancestor of these multicellular animals
GELATINOUS LAYER
sandwiched between surface cells and choanoflagellates; amoeboid cells
AMOEBOID CELLS
inside gelatinous layer: they pick up food particles trapped by collar cells and ingest them by phagocytosis-carry nutrients to other parts of the body; also produce skeletal elements of sponge=spicules & protein fibers
PHAGOCYTOSIS
of some cells, engulfment of an extracellular target by way of pseudopod formation and endocytosis
SPICULES
made by amoeboid cells; silica of CaCO3
HERMAPHRODITE/BISEXUAL
one animal produces sperm & eggs; amoeboid cells-gametes(meiosis), sperm released in water, eggs retained in gelatinous layer, zygote-flagellate larval stage-lands on substrate
LARVA
immature stage between an embryo and adult; in porifera-flagellate larval stage
ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION
any reproductive mode by which offsprig arise from a single parent and inherit the genes of that parent only; sponge fragments carried to other spots
SEXUAL REPRODUCTION
production of offspring b meiosis, gamete formation, and fertilization
CNIDARIA
type of radial invertebrate at the tissue level of organization; the only nematocyst producer; ie: aquatic jellyfish, anemones, and corals; mostly marine; coral-forming=symbiotic association b/w cnidarian & dinoflagellate; 2 basic body plans=polyp & medusa; diploblastic(no mesoderm); gastrovascular cavity; mouth surrounded by food-capturing tentacles; epithelium
ZOOXANTHELLAE
dinoflagellate that lives symbiotically with cnidaria in order to build coral-reefs; they provide nutrients
POLYP
vase-shaped, sedentary stage of cnidarian life cycles; sessile form (anemones & corals)
MEDUSA
free-swimming, bell shaped stage, often with oral lobes and tentacles extending below the bell; floating form (jellyfish)
MESOGLEA
jelly-like layer/matrix between ecto- and endoderm; acts as hydrostatic skeleton against which muscle-like cells can work; gives buoyancy to body;
GASTROVASCULAR CAVITY
one opening of sac-like body; both input & output of gut(incomplete digestive system); food processing is partly extracellular; also functions in gas exchange (O2);
TENTACLES
surrounds mouth of cnidaria; have cells with nematocysts that help capture prey;
NEMATOCYSTS
cells on tentacles of cnidaria; act as harpoons when triggered; may have toxins or jut sticky stuff;
EPITHELIUM
animal tissue that covers external surfaces and lines internal cavities and tubes; one surface is free and the other rests in a basement membrane; tissue that lines the body; contains epidermal cells, nerve cells, contractile cells;
NERVE NET
simple nervous system in epidermis of cnidarians and some other invertebrates; a diffuse mesh of simple, branching nerve cells interacts with contractile and sensory cells; interacting nerve cells in epithelium=simple nervous system; signals contractile cells to shorten or lengthen and change body shape
CONTRACTILE CELLS
muscle-like cells; shorten and lengthen and change body shape (for locomotion or feeding);
NEURONS
nerve cells
AXON
conducting zone; neuron's signal-conducting zone; output zone=axon endings
ELECTRICAL POTENTIAL (using K & Na)
neuron's ability to respond based on e.p. across cell membrane; cytoplasm=-charge & interstitial fluid=+charge(+ outside & inside -)
Na/K PUMPS
ions leak in and out of cell & they maintain gradient
RESTING POTENTIAL
a voltage difference across the plasma membrane that holds steady in the absence of outside stimulation
ACTION POTENTIAL
initiated by strong signal at input zone of neuron
POSITIVE FEEDBACK
homeostatic control; it initiates a chain of events that intensify change from an original condition,then intensification reverses the change; Na+ ions go into cytoplasm-p.f.-more Na+ ions go into cytoplasm
THRESHOLD POTENTIAL
if reached, automatically reaches action potential="all or nothing" reaction(once enough Na+ ions start to flow into cell, they can't be stopped)
CHEMICAL SYNAPSE
thin cleft between a presynaptic neuron and a postsynapticcell; neurotransmitter molecules diffuse across it; narrow space between 2 neurons; connects output zoe of one neuron w/ input zone of another
SYNAPTIC VESICLES
carry chemical signal to next nerve cell
NEUROTRANSMITTERS
signaling molecules that diffuse across chemical synapse->attach to membrane receptors of neighboring neuron->allows ions to flow into neuron->initiates another action potential
NEMATODES
roundworms,; most free-living, also lots of parasites; found almost everywhere; bilateral symmetry; cuticle; complete digestive system; cephalization & nervous system similar to flatworms; triploblastic w/ pseudocoelom; usually sexual; ie: trichinella spiralis, hookworms, and Wuchereri bacrofti
CUTICLE
body cover; tough, flexible; made of collagen-protein
CEPHALIZATION
over time, the concentration of sensory structures and nerve cells in a head;
FREE LIVING VS. PARASITIC
living independent vs. living in a host
TRICHONOSIS
Trichinella spiralis; transmitted by eating undercooked meat (juveniles encysted in muscle tissue, much like tapeworms)
HOOKWORMS
usually live in intestines and feed on host's blood; eggs transmitted by feces->juveniles penetrate skin->travel thru blook stremto lungs->windpipe->swallowed into digestive system
ELEPHANTIASIS
transmitted by mosquito; adult worms clog lymph nodes;
BLASTULA
early outcome of cleavage(mitosis); a number of blastomeres enclose a fluid-filled cavity; hollow ball of cells; infolds to form the 3 germ layers
ANNELIDS
segmented worms; ie: earthworms, plychaetes and leeches; paired setae; cuticle; nervous system:brain, paired nerve cord; body wall & digestive tract lined w/ muscles; coelom partitioned by segments; closed circulation system; metanephridia;
SETAE
paired chitin bristles; for crawling & burrowing;
CHITIN
polysaccharide; strengthens exoskeletons
CLOSED CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
O2, nutrients & wastes stay inside vein/arteries/heart; ie: chordates,annilids, one type of mollusk; evolved independently in chordates; open(carried in coelom-mollusk & arthropods)
METANEPHRIDIA
w/ a pair of excretory tubes in each segment
LEECHES
predators & parasites; reduced coelom & segmentation; loss of setae; specialized mouth parts for sucking blood
MOLLUSKS
triploblastic; fleshy, soft body; segmentation evolutionary lost; open circulatory system; ie: gastropods, bivalves, and cephalopods
MUSCULAR FOOT
part of mollusk body plan
VISCERAL MASS
where organs are contained
MANTLE
fold of tissue draped over the visceral mass that may secrete a shell
RADULA
strap-like scraping organ for feeding(made up of rasping mouth parts composed mainly of chitin)
OPEN CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
w/ heart; every type of mollusk (gastropods & bivalves) except cephalopods;
GILLS
thin structures where gas is exchanged
GASTROPODS
largest class of mollusks=snails, slugs, limpets, etc; gastropod="belly foot"; torsion; most have CaCO3 shell; use large muscular foot to move around; use radula to graze on algae or plants(some predators);
TORSION
body of gastropods twist 180 degrees in development
BIVALVES
ie=clams, oysters, mussels, and scallops; shell divided into 2 halves; large muscular foot for burrowing; gills used for filter feeding & gas exchange; no distinct head->evolutionary lost radula; siphons;
SIPHON
mantle edges modified into siphons to circulate water in & out of body
CEPHALOPODS
ie=squids, octopuses, and nautiluses; cephalopod="head foot"; predators w/ beak-like jaws(modified radula); large brain w/ well developed eyes (smartest invertebrates); jet propulsion; efficient respiratory & closed circulatory system(only group of mollusks w/ closed system); shell usually reduced or absent; ammonites;
JET PROPULSION
foot of cephalopod(mollusk) modified into muscular siphon for jet propulsion
AMMONITES
ancestors of modern cephalopods (dominant predators for millions of years before Cretaceous->now extinct)
ARTHROPODS
largest phylum of animals(insects=largest class); segmented bodies; jointed appendages; exoskeleton; respiration by tracheal tubes-aquatic have gills; open circulatory system w/ heart; nervous system=brain + nerve cords; coelom reduced-muscles work against exoskeleton not hydrostatic skeleton;
JOINTED APPENDAGES
arthropods have->diversity of appendage types->allowed for more efficient locomotion(arthropod="jointed foot")
EXOSKELETON
external skeleton of arthropods; of mainly chitin(plus proteins & waxes)=modified cuticle derived from ectoderm; protects against desciccation and predation; also restricts body size->molting
MOLTING
periodic shedding of worn-out or too small body structures; growth in spurts for arthropods;
TRACHEAL TUBES
used in respiration of arthropods; chitin-reinforced tubes that lead to pores/holes in the exoskeleton(allows for gas diffusion to body parts); aquatic arthropods have gills;
HEMOCYANIN
in arthropods, O2 transport in blood using O2-binding protein pigment-hemocyanin
COMPOUND EYES
in arthropods, multiple rodlike units, each of which samples part of the visual fields
CHELICERATES
subgroup of arthropods; terrestrial=spiders, scorpions, ticks & mites; marine=sea spiders & horseshoe crabs; no antennae; 2 main body segments=cephalothorax & abdomen; book lungs;
CEPHALOTHORAX
1of2 body segments of chelicerates(arthropods); head + thorax(sensory, walking, and feeding appendages)
ABDOMEN
1of 2 body segments of chelicerates(arthropods); silk-spinning & egg-laying appendages
BOOK LUNGS
respiratory organs for gas exchange; marine chelicerates still use gills;
CRUSTACEANS
ie=shrimps, lobsters, crabs, barnacles, and pill bugs(terrestrial); mostly aquatic & mostly marine; well-developed segmentation=cephalothorax(feeding + walking appendages, include sensory structures=eyes + pair of antennae) & abdomen(segments for locomotion)
MILLIPEDES
arthropods; long highly segmented bodies w/ many legs; rounded bodies w/ 2 pairs of legs per segment; scavenge on decaying plant materials;
CENTIPEDES
artropods; long highly segmented bodies w/ many legs; have flattened bodies w/ usually 1 pair of legs per segment; predators w/ venom glands;
INSECTS
the major animal group on land; segmented body=head, thorax, abdomen; "division of labor" in life stages, ie=butterfly(feeding stage + sexual/dispersal stage)
HEAD
insects; paired sensory antennae + mouth parts for feeding;
THORAX
insects; 3 pairs of legs + 2 pairs of wings(only winged invertebrates)
ABDOMEN
insects; egg-laying devices and other reproductive structures
ECHINODERMS
exclusively marine; ie=sea stars, sea urchins, sand dollars, sea cucumbers, & sea lillies; radially symmetric(juvenile stage have bilateral symmetry); endoskeleton; water vascular system; decentralized nervous system w/ no brain; different forms of nutrition=sea stars-eject stomach to partially digest, sea urchins-grazers w/ specialized mouth parts; sea lilies & sea cucumbers-filter feeders;
ENDOSKELETON
of echinoderms; made up of CaCO3 plates; derived from mesoderm; external skin layers over plates->"spiny skin"
WATER VASCULAR SYSTEM
echinoderms: unique open circulation system; tube feet;
TUBE FEET
part of echinoderms water vascular system; function in locomotion, feeding, & gas exchange; function using muscles and hydraulic action(redistributing water throughout the vascular system);
DECENTRALIZED NERVOUS SYSTEM
in echinoderms; NO brain; any arm can act as dominant arm, depending on stimulus;
CHORDATES
animal having a notochord, dorsal hollow nerve cord, pharynx, and gill slits in pharynx wall during at least part of life cycle; notochord; dorsal nerve cord; pharynx w/ gill slits; tail extending past anus;
JUVENILE VS. ADULT (for chordates)
notochord: only embryonic; dorsal nerve cord: in embryo & develops brain into adult; pharynx w/ gill slits: embryonic ?adult too; tail extending past anus: sometimes only found in embryo, does persist into adulthood too;
NOTOCHORD
a rod of stiffened tissue(not cartilage or bone); forms as a supporting structure for body; long stiff, flexible rod of tissue; in advance chordates, found only in embryonic stage;
DORSAL NERVE CORD
chordate nervous system arises from; tube that forms from ectoderm; situated b/w notochord & digestive tract; all other nerve cords in invertebrate groups have been ventral & solid; brain develops in anterior end->will go on to produce the central nervous system;
VENTRAL NERVE CORD
located on the underside of an invertebrate animal
CNS
central nervous system; in chordates, produced from dorsal nerve cord;
PHARYNX W/ GILL SLITS
muscularized tube that functions in feeding & gas exchange; situated at anterior end of digestive tube; evolutionarily produce many different structures(ie: jaw bones)
TAIL EXTENDING PAST ANUS
may only be found in embryos; in adults &/or juveniles, provides main mode of propulsion;
UROCHORDATES
ie: tunicates/sea squirts; juveniles(non-feeding stage) show most of the chordate features; adults=sessile marine animals that filter feed(using gill slits);
CEPHALOCHORDATES
lancelets; adults show all 4 chordate features; filter feeders that burrow in the sand(blade-like body shape); can also swim(muscles act against notochord);
CRANIATES
chordates w/ a skull(cranium) and paired sensory organs on their heads; includes all fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals alive today;
CRANIUM
skull
HAGFISH
not parasite; most primitive group of craniates still alive; 30 ssp. still alive today are all marine; mainly bottom-dwelling scavengers; retain notochord in adult stage; lack jaws, paired fins, or well-developed eyes; 4 pairs of sensory tentacles around mouth; 2 pairs of rasping appendages on tongue-like structure for feeding; slime glands;
SENSORY TENTACLES
Hagfish: 4 pairs around mouth
SLIME GLANDS
Hagfish: serete thick, gooey substance that deters predators
VERTEBRATES
chordates w/ a true vertebral column; endoskeleton w/ vertebrae initially composed of cartilage->cartilage ossified(mineralized) to produce an endoskeleton of bone
AGNATHANS
eel-shaped vertebrate without jaws or paired appendages; craniates; ie: ostracoderms; vanished after jaws evolved, since couldn't protect from them;
CARTILAGE
connective tissue with solid, pliable intercellular material that resists compression
LAMPREYS
most primitive vertebrates; mainly marine parasites that attch to fish w/ sucker-like oral disk; lack jaws; gill slits w/ supporting gill arches, develop from pharynx w/ gill slits; hollow vertebral column made of cartilage surounds notochord & partially surrounds the dorsal nerve cord; notochord is lost in higher vertebrate groups;
ORAL DISK
Lampreys use a sucker like oral disk->rasp away at flesh w/ hard mouth parts; parasite
HINGED JAWS
jawed vertebrate characteristic; develop from gill arches->more specialized jaw w/ teeth; allowed for division of labor b/w gills & jaws; allowed for ingestion of large prey than filter-feeding->predators w/ larger body size;
BONY ENDOSKELETON
jawed vertebrate charactristic; allowed for reduction in thickness of external scales->more flexible body; also allowed for more rapid swimming(muscles can act against harder structures than cartilage)
CLOSED CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
jawed vertebrate characteristic; in fish a 2-chambered heart pumps blood through one circuit; terrestrial vertebrates develop a more efficient system in which the heart pumps blood in 2 different circuits;
1 CIRCUIT VS. 2 CIRCUITS
1 circuit: (fish)blood picks up O2 at gills and carries it to the organs; 2 circuit: (amphibians) heart pumps blood thru 2 partially separated circuits-picks up oxygen flows to heart, mixes w/ poor blood, flows to rest of body, returns to heart;
3 CHAMBERED HEART
amphibians; right atrium, left atrium, & heart;
4 CHAMBERED HEART
birds & mammals; right atrium, right ventricle, heart, left atrium, & left ventricle;
PAIRED APPENDAGES
(fins) for movement and stabilization in water
CARTILAGINOUS FISH
ie: skates, rays, sharks, & batfish; evolve in marine habitat; evolutionarily lost a bony skeleton->cartilaginous one
BONY FISH
evolved in fresh water and moved to marine habitats; swim bladder; ray-finned fish, lobe-finned fish, lung fish;
SWIM BLADDER
air sacs that control buoyancy(by exchanging gases w/ blood); evolved from sac-shaped outpouchings of the gut; allowed for more control in swimming and gas exchange in low O2 waters->bony fish c remain motionless while sharks have to move constantly for gas exchange; allowed for evolution from bottom dwellers to actively swimming organisms->can catch larger prey;
RAY-FINNED FISH
most abundant today; ray fins;
RAY FINS
more maneuverable in water than relatively inflexible fins of sharks->evolution of lobed fins->limbs
LOBE-FINNED FISH
muscular pelvic and pectoral fins supported by extensions of the bony skeleton; coelacanth;
COELACANTH
the only known lineage of lobe-finned fish, still alive today
LUNG FISH
only 3 genera today; were dominant predators in shallow waters;
LUNGS
developed from air sacs->allowed fish to survive periods of drying in shallow waters->eventually allowed for invasion of land(where there weren't as many large predators or competition)
NITROGENOUS WASTES & EXCRETION; ammonia, urea, uric acid
characteristic that kept fish in water; secrete ammonia by direct diffusion across gills; NH3 very toxic to body tissues but easy to get rid of in water; planTs solved this; excreted thru kidneys;
EXTERNAL VS. INTERNAL FERTILIZATION
characteristic that kept fish in water; external fertilization of eggs by sperm needed water;
TETRAPODS
invasion of animals onto land; amphibians & mammals; appendage & gas exchange;
PECTORAL & PELVIC GIRDLES
evolution of legs; how legs are connected to backbone;
STRONGER VERTEBRAL COLUMN
evolution of legs; w/ bony elements (now have gravity to cope with);
AMPHIBIANS
among earliest tetrapods; ie: frogs, toads, salamanders, and caecilians; "2-lives"; most maintain a close relationship w/ water; nitrogen(waste) excretion-tadpoles=ammonia thru gills & adults=ammonia converted to less toxic urea->excreted thru kidneys; gas exchange; circulation system= 3 chambered heart & 2 circuits completely separated or 4 chambered heart;
AMNIOTES
tetrapods w/ amniotic eggs; internal fertilization; shelled egg; resistant body covering; gas exchange by lungs only; stronger body w/ legs held centrally; nitrogen excretion by kidneys; well-developed nervous system-> larger brain;
SHELLED EGG
amnion=protective fluid-filled sac
KERATIN
protein that amniotes body is covered by
MAMMALS
first amniotic group to branch off; ancestors were mammal-like extinct "reptiles"; synapsid skull; hair; endotherms mammary glands; placental animals; 4 chambered heart; many different orders;
SYNAPSID SKULL
w/ one opening behind the eye socket=shared derived character for mammal group
SYNAPSID OPENING
earliest mammal-like reptiles=one small synapsid opening; later mammal-like reptiles=larger synapsid opening; mammals today=usually synapsid opening fused with eye socket;
INNER EAR BONES
2 jaw bones develomentally moved into the ear; vestibular, apparatus, & cochlea;
HAIR
made of protein keratin; provides insulation and protection against water loss; whiskers provide important sensory structures;
ENDOTHERM vs. ECTOTHERM
endotherm=heat from metabolism used to maintain body temperature; "warm-blooded"; allows animal to maintain high activity levels, even in cold coditions; ectoderm=poorly insulated, gets heat from sun;
MAMMARY GLANDS
milk production for young
PLACENTAL MAMMAL
gives live birth(usually); embryo develops inside mother's uterus & gets nourishment from mother filtered through placenta; primitive mammals(monotremes) still lay eggs;
REPTILES(are they monophyletic?)
not monophyletic=evolutionary grade of superficially similar-looking animals; not shared derived characters;
TURTLES
possibly most primitive group in "reptile" + bird group; includes turtles and tortoises; anapsid; protective shell encasing fused w/ vertebral column;
ANAPSID
no holes in skull(turtles)
DIAPSID
ie=lizards, snakes, extinct dinosaur groups, birds; 2 holes in skull;
DIAPSID OPENING
2 holes behind eye socket; for muscle attachment
SQUAMATA
lizards & snakes; scales; closely related to tuataras; make up 95% living "reptiles"
LEPIDOSAURS
salamanders; primitive locomotion;
LIZARDS
squamata; have adapted to many life styles;
SNAKES
squamata; specialized predators; lost pelvic & pectoral girdles(limbless); ability to swallow large prey(2 halves of the lower jaw are only connected by skin & muscle);
ARCHOSAURS
ie=crocodilians, birds, dinosaurs; skull has add'l hole in front of the eye(unknown function); gizzard;
FRONTAL SKULL OPENING
archosaurs; hole in front of eye; unknown function-maybe sensory;
GIZZARD
specialized grinding portion of the digestive system
CROCODILIANS
largest living reptiles; aquatic amniotes;
DINOSAURS(extinct "reptiles" + birds)
include many extinct reptiles + birds(only extant group); 2 legs; forelimbs w/ wrist bones(highly modified)
BIRDS
specialized dinosaur(theropod) group w/ lots of modifications for flight; wings, feathers, hollow bones, well developed sternum; efficient respiratory & circulatory systems; endothermic w/ very high metabolism; hard beak made w/ keratin-NO teeth(genes still present for teeth though);
WINGS
modified forelimbs
FEATHERS
modified scales
KEEL
birds well-developed sternum for flight muscle attachment
TISSUE
interacting group of similar cells that function together to perform one or more tasks; 4 basic animal tissue: muscle, nervous, connective, epithelial
EPITHELIAL
covers external surface & lines internal cavities & tubes;
MUSCLE
tissue w/ organized arrays of cells able to contract when stimulated
NERVOUS
connective tissue composed of neurons and often neuroglia
CONNECTIVE
most abundant type of animal tissue; soft connective tissues differ in amount, arrangement of fibroblasts, fibers, ground substance; adipose tisue, cartilage,bone tissue, and blood
ORGAN
contains one or more tissues united together for a particular function
ORGAN SYSTEMS
made up of 2 or more organs that interact together to perform a common task->organ systems act together as the machinery driving our bodies; 11 major organ bodies;
ECTODERM (tissue it gives rise to)
skin & nervous system
ENDODERM (tissue it gives rise to)
digestive system
MESODERM (tissue it gives rise to)
muscle, bone circulatory, reproductive, & urinary systems;
INTEGUMENT(composition & function)
outer covering of the body that includes skin & structures associated w/ the skin; protective barrier, regulation of temp. in endothermic animals; in sensory reception; excretory functions;
SKIN
major organ of the integument system= largest human organ;
EPIDERMIS
outer layer of cells; outermost layer is dead and replaced by cells below; keratinized cells sandwiched b/w outer and innermost layers; innermost layers are rapidly undergoing mitosis to replace outermost cells;
DERMIS
thicker layer below epidermis that contains blood vessels, sweat glands, hair follicles, oil glands, nerves, and pigment cells;
SKELETAL SYSTEM
3 main types of skeletal systems in animals: hydrostatic skeleton, exoskeleton, & endoskeleton; bones of endoskeleton;
HYDROSTATIC SKELETON
muscles work against an internal body fluid that can be redistributed w/ in a confined space;
EXOSKELETON
rigid, external body parts
ENDOSKELETON
internal body parts
BONES
of endoskeleton=collagen-rich, mineralized organs that functions in support, movement, protection, mineral storage, and blood cell formation; usually develop from cartilaginous regions; composed of living cells; joined together w/ cartilage & ligaments;
SKELETAL MUSCLES
bundles of cylindrical, elongate, striated contractile cells;
STRIATED
made up of many repeat units (sarcomeres)
TENDONS
skeletal muscles are attached to bone by tendons
MYOFIBRILS
thread-like units that run parallel inside muscle cells
SARCOMERE
each myofibril is made up of one
ACTIN
thin protein filaments that make up sarcomeres
MYOSIN
thick protein filaments that make up sarcomeres
SLIDING FILAMENT MODEL
myosin filaments remain fixed; actin filaments slide over them toward sarcomere center-> shrinks the whole width of sarcomere; sliding requires ATP input;
SMOOTH MUSCLE
unstriated,contractile cells; function in constriction of internal organs->involuntary movement;
UNSTRIATED
not separated, smooth
CARDIACE MUSCLE
unevenly striated cells of the heart wall w/ gap junctions b/w cells to conduct rapid signal for concerted contraction(contract as unit); function to pump blood through circulatory sytem-> involuntary movement;
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
where the nutritional processes proceed; body cavity that mechanically and chemically reduces food to particles & eventually moleculs small enough to be absorbed by the body; eliminates unabsorbed wastes;
INCOMPLETE vs. COMPLETE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
most have complete system; cnidaria, porifera, & platyhelminthes do NOT;
3 MAJOR FOOD TYPES
carbohydrates, proteins, lipids; all of them ultimately come from plants;
OLD vs. NEW FOOD PYRAMID
fewer carbohydrates & more "good" fats
MOUTH
input; teeth; salivary glands; tongue;
TEETH
used to grind food into smaller particles
SALIVARY GLANDS
secrete saliva; w/ polysacchride-digesting enzymes + mucus;
AMYLASE
carbohydrate digestion; in saliva & pancreas;
PHARYNX
tubular entrance to esophagus & trachea;
EPIGLOTTIS
a flap of tissue that keeps you from choking when swallowing food destined for the esophagus;
ESOPHAGUS
muscular tube that connects pharynx to stomach
GUT
stomach, small + large intestines, and rectum
STOMACH
muscular, stretchable sac that functions in mixing & dissolving food and in controlling passage of food to small intestine; lined w/ epithelium; nothing absorbed; hoofed animals have multiple stomachs; birds have crop & gizzard;
PEPSINOGENS
secreted from epithelium; eventually used for protein breakdown;
RUMINANTS
hoofed animals; stomachs w/ multiple chambers in which cellulose can be digested by bacterial symbionts living inside the gut;
CROP
storage area for gulped food
GIZZARD
2nd part of the stomach that grinds hard food & cycles it back to glandular part of stomach;
PERISTALSIS
muscular action that keeps food moving through the digestive system(driven by smooth muscle)
SMALL INTESTINE
major organ of digestion & absorption; most large nutrient molecules absorbed(proteins, carbohydrates, & fats)