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23 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
A large, complex molecule composed of long chains of amino acids linked by a peptide bond
Lock and Key
The specific action of an enzyme with a single substrate can be explained using a Lock and Key analogy first postulated in 1894 by Emil Fischer. In this analogy, the lock is the enzyme and the key is the substrate. Only the correctly sized key (substrate) fits into the key hole (active site) of the lock (enzyme).

Smaller keys, larger keys, or incorrectly positioned teeth on keys (incorrectly shaped or sized substrate molecules) do not fit into the lock (enzyme). Only the correctly shaped key opens a particular lock.
A compound containing atoms of only carbon and hydrogen.
molecules with the same chemical formula and often with the same kinds of chemical bonds between atoms, but in which the atoms are arranged differently
Compound Microscope
A microscope with more than one lens.
Stereo Microscope
device used to analyze side-by-side specimens. It consists of two microscopes connected to an optical bridge, which results in a split view window.
going from high to low concentration
The net movement of water molecules from a region of high water potential to a region of lower water potential through a partially permeable membrane
Kinetic Energy
The energy possessed by an object because of its motion, equal to one half the mass of the body times the square of its velocity.
the process by which a cell directs secretory vesicles to the cell membrane. These membrane-bound vesicles contain soluble proteins to be secreted to the extracellular environment, as well as membrane proteins and lipids that are sent to become components of the cell membrane.
a process whereby cells absorb material (molecules such as proteins) from the outside by engulfing it with their cell membrane. It is used by all cells of the body because most substances important to them are polar and consist of big molecules, and thus cannot pass through the hydrophobic plasma membrane. The function of endocytosis is the opposite of exocytosis.
Active Transport
the mediated transport of biochemicals, and other atomic/molecular substances, across membranes. Unlike passive transport, this process requires the expenditure of cellular energy to move molecules "uphill" against a gradient.
Passive Transport
a means of moving biochemicals, and other atomic or molecular substances, across membranes. Unlike active transport, this process does not involve chemical energy
an organism characterized by the absence of a nuclear membrane and by DNA that is not organized into chromosomes.
organisms with a complex cell or cells, where the genetic material is organized into a membrane-bound nucleus or nuclei.
the process by which cells obtain chemical energy by the consumption of oxygen and the release of carbon dioxide
oxidation of molecules in the absence of oxygen monoxide
The cellular degradation of the simple sugar glucose to yield ATP as an energy source.
Lactic Acid
(organic chemistry) 2-hydroxy-propanoic acid (CH3.CHOH.CO2H), a syrupy liquid, soluble in water; found in milk, wine and many fruits; used as a food additive and in many industrial applications.
Adenosine Triphosphate Cycle (ATP)
A nucleotide that occurs in muscle tissue, and is used as a source of energy in cellular reactions, and in the synthesis of nucleic acids.
Nicotinamide Dinucleotiode Cycle (NAD)
is an important coenzyme found in cells. It plays key roles as carriers of electrons in the transfer of reduction potential.
krebs cycle
A series of enzymatic reactions that occurs in all aerobic organisms; it involves the oxidative metabolism of acetyl units, and serves as the main source of cellular energy.
electron transport chain
a series of membrane-associated electron carriers mediating biochemical reactions that produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is the energy currency of life