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93 Cards in this Set

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What cells in the body produce leptin?
fat cells
An individaual who had an abnormally low number of leptin receptors and was otherwise normal would tend to be _______.
overweight
What does Lack of leptin transporters cause?
Cause Weight Gain
What does Lack of receptors on the hypotalamus cells for leptin cause
Cause Weight Gain
What doesLack of receptors on liver cell for leptin cause
No affect on body weight
What does Deficiency in leptin production cause
Cause Weight Gain
What does Deficiency in Neuropeptide Y production cause
Causes Weight Loss
What does Deficiency in melanocortin-4 production cause
Cause Weight Gain
Promotes inflamation
'bad' eicosanoids
Stimulates the immune system
'good' eicosanoids
Continuously varying trait in a segregating population
Multifactorial
Condition produced by diet rich in high glycemic CHOs
hyperinsulinemia
Essential fatty acid needed for brain neurons
DHA
Rich source of the essential fatty acids EPA and DHA
fish oil
Enzyme that is activated by insulin and produces AA
Delta 5 desaturase
Powerful local hormones present in evey cell of the body
eicosanoids
Analgesic that reduces all eicosanoids
asprin
Drug useful in treating inflamation, which leads to heart disease and rheumatoid arthritis
COX inhibitors
Hormone, which if present in excess causes chronic diseases of old age
insulin
Enzyme that removes 2 electrons and 2 H ions to introduce a double bond in a fatty acid chain
desaturase
Allele associated with compulsive disorders
A1
The genes which control height in humans are different from many other genes because height genes
produce continuously varying phenotypes
In a nucleotide triphosphate, to which carbon on the ribose (or dexoyribose), will the base be bound?
1'
In a nucleotide triphosphate, which carbon on the ribose (or dexoyribose), will distinguish RNA from DNA?
2'
If a nucleotide is part of a polynucleotide chain, to which carbon on the ribose (or deoxyribose), will the next nucleotide to join the chain be attached?
3'
Isolated DNA from puss
Miescher
The defective enzyme producing Alkapton urea cannot metabolize
homogentisic acid
In 1900, though protein was the genetic material
Most scientists
Observed that behavior of genes paralleled the behavior of chromosomes during meiosis
Sutten
Hypothesized that genetic diseases resulted from the production of a defective enzyme
Garrod
Discovered transformation in Pneumococcus bacteria
Griffith
Strain of Pneumococcus which will cause disease
S strain
Avirulent strain of Pneumococcus bacteria
R strain
Used DNAase enzymes to prevent transformation
Avery, Macleod and McCarty
Found that labeled phosphate in a bacteriophage entered bacteria, whereas labeled sulfur does not.
Hershey and Chase
Built first correct model of the DNA helix
Watson and Crick
Showed that the number of Adenines equals the number of Thymines and that the number of Guanines equals the number of Cytosines.
Chargaff
Performed the X ray diffraction experiments that led to the discovery of the shape of DNA
Franklin
Discovered the alpha helical structure of protein
Pauling
Shared the Nobel Prize with Watson and Crick
Wilkins
DNA bases with a double ring
purines
In a nucleotide triphosphate, to which carbon on the ribose (or dexoyribose), will the phosphate be bound?
5'
The main mechanism which is used to denature DNA in the PCR technique is to
__________.
Heat the solution
All new DNA polymers are made in the _______ to _______ direction.
5' to 3'
When DNA is replicated, one strand must be made discontinuously because the direction of the strand relative to the direction of movement of the DNA polymerase is
5' to 3'
When DNA is replicated, the continuous strand is read by the DNA polymerase enzyme in the _________ direction
3' to 5'
A protein which opens the DNA helix at the replication fork is called ______?
helicase
The last bond made to completely join two fragments on the discontinuous strand is made by a small enzyme called _________.
ligase
Messelson and Stahl took DNA in which both strands were labeled with heavy nitrogen. They then transfered their bacteria to growth media that had only light sources of nitrogen. If DNA was replicated in a conservative manner what type of bands would they have seen in their centrifuge tubes after one cell division?
Two bands - one at the top and one at the bottom
Messelson and Stahl took DNA in which both strands were labeled with heavy nitrogen. They then transfered their bacteria to growth media that had only light sources of nitrogen. If DNA was replicated in a dispersive manner what type of bands would they have seen in their centrifuge tubes after one cell division?
A band in the middle
Messelson and Stahl took DNA in which both strands were labeled with heavy nitrogen. They then transfered their bacteria to growth media that had only light sources of nitrogen. If DNA was replicated in a dispersive manner what type of bands would they have seen in their centrifuge tubes after two cell divisions?
A band in the middle
Messelson and Stahl took DNA in which both strands were labeled with heavy nitrogen. They then transfered their bacteria to growth media that had only light sources of nitrogen. If DNA was replicated in a semi-conservative manner what type of bands would they have seen in their centrifuge tubes after two cell divisions?
Two bands - one at the top and one in the middle
Newly replicated DNA on the discontinuous strand is made in short bits (1000 bases). These short pieces are called __________.
Okazaki fragments
Newly replicated DNA on the discontinuous strand is made in short bits (1000 bases). These short pieces will later be modified as ________ removes the primers and fills in the gaps with the exception of the last link.
exonuclease
A technique used to increase the amount of DNA in a certain region flanked by artificial primers is called _______?
PCR
The enzyme___________lays down a short _______ sequence which is used by DNA Polymerase III to start replicating a DNA template strand.
primase......RNA
Proteins that protects single stranded DNA during replication are called _____.
single strand binding proteins
A normal copy of the RAS protein will be ________ when growth factor is bound to a receptor and ___________ when growth factor is absent from the receptor.
active ........inactive
A characteristic of cancer cells is that they divide faster than any other cell in the human body.
False
An example of a tumor suppressor gene is
p53 gene
RB gene
Cancer cells are immortal. This immortality is made possible because of these cells have
Telomerase
Genes that stimulate cell division only in response to an appropriate growth factor signal are called
Proto-oncogenes
Genes that suppress cell division are called
Tumor Suppressor genes
How many copies of the RB gene must be mutated to lead to Retinoblastoma?
Two
The Rous Sarcoma Virus picks up a _________ gene from the host genome and this leads to cancer.
kinase
The type of cancer in the U.S. with the greatest number of new cases per year is:
Skin
When cancer cells move to other parts of the body we say that the cancer has
Metastasize
Which of the following is not a tumor suppressor gene?
RAS
The simple undifferentiated cell mass that is produced when carrot root cells are cloned is called:
callus
A common way to denature DNA to allow for the binding of a probe would be to:
raise the pH
Which enzyme is responsible for covalently linking DNA strands together?
DNA ligase
Genes from higher primates might be good probes for use in finding a human gene in a genomic library.
True
A cloned library of an entire genome contains:
all the genes of an organism
Cloning from differentiated adult cells as was done in the production of Dolly the sheep are now as successful as cloning from stem cells.
False
Match the statement that best describes monozygotic twins.
Monozygotic twins have the same genes but will vary in some traits due to environmental interaction with genes.
Nucear transfer to clone cattle is done by the following technique
a sixteen cell embryo is divided into sixteen separate cells and fused with enucleated eggs. The fused eggs are then implanted into surrogate mothers
The restriction enzymes of a bacterial cell do not cut their own chromosome because the bacteria contains enzymes that
adds metyl groups to the A's or C's in the recognition sequence
Restriction enzymes:
recognize specific nucleotide sequences in DNA.
cut both strands of DNA.
often produce single-stranded tails (sticky ends)
The enzyme that is used to make cDNA from mRNA is
Reverse transcriptase
If the enzyme BamHI is used to clone a foreign gene into pBR322, the cells containing the successfully cloned gene will:
Not grow in media containing tetracycline
The plasmid pBR322 can carry foreign pieces of DNA that are 500,000 bases in length.
False
Which vector can hold the largest piece of DNA
YAC
In order to successfully insert a foreign gene into a vector two different restriciton enzymes must be used.
false
A condition that leads to death due to the degeneration of nervous tissue and that does not exhibit symptoms until middle age (40 to 50 years old) is:
Huntington's disease
Goat milk is used in bio-pharming to produce large quantities of:
tPA protein
Human insulin and human growth hormone are the only products made by recombinant DNA technology
false
If three VNTR loci, which are each found at a frequency of 1% in a population, are used to construct a genetic fingerprint the discrimination value will be closest to:
1 in a million (once in a lifetime...)
In order to use RFLP mapping, extensive information about the nature of the gene product must be known.
false
_____________ is a proceedure used to identify RFLP or VNTR fragments in a gel.
Southern Blot
__________ is used in mice, where a altered gene (non-functional) is inserted in place of the normal gene through the process of _________________.
Gene knockout ............. homologous recombination
RFLPs are produced by cutting DNA with ___________ and separating the resulting fragments on _____________.
Restriction enzymes ........ gel electrophoresis
The tissue plasminogen activator protein is made in bacteria because it is easy to extract in its pure form.
false
Which of the following proceedure would be used with 'in vitro' fertilization
preimplantation testing