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45 Cards in this Set

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Selective Breeding
allows animals w/ desired traits to reproduce
Hybridization
crossing dissimilar individuals
hybrid
products of hybridization
inbreeding
breeding individuals with similar traits
polyploidy
many sets of chromosomes
PCR
used to make multiple copies of DNA
Restriction enzymes
cut DNA
Transformation
cell takes in DNA from the outsidecell and DNA becomes part of the cell's DNA-transforming the cell
plasmid
loops of DNA
Automsomes
dont determine sex, 44
Sex chromosomes
determine sex, 2
PKU
people lack Enzymes to break done phenyaline
Tay Sach
Jewish, death in first years of life
Cystic Fibrosis
excessive mucus in lung, digestive tract, and liver
Achondroplasia
dwarfism
Huntingtons
12 years to live, middle age, slurred speec & uncontrolled movements
Sckle Cell disease
)- get stuck in cappilaries
Hemoglobin
protein that carries oxygen in blood
sex linked cells
are on the sex chromosome
colorblindness
Reduced ability to discriminate between colors, especially shades of red and green. Usually hereditary
hemophilia
bleeders disease, protein for clotting is missing
Muscular Dystrophy
progressie weakening, people rarely make it out of childhood
X chromosome inactivation
females have 2 X chromosomes ( and can turn one off), males have one
Barr Body
inactivated X chromosome is so tightly wound it can't be transcribed
Homeostasis
stable internal environment
feedback inhibition
process where the product of a system shuts down the system or limits its operation
nervous system
controls the body and responds to internal and external stimuli
neurons
cells that transmit electrical signals called impulses
sensory neurons
send impulses to the brain and spinal cord
motor neurons
send impulses to the brain, spinal cord, muscle, and glands
Interneurons
connect sensort and motor neurons and carries impulses in between
cell body
largest part of a typical neuron
dendrites
short branch extension that extend out of the cell body
axon
long fiber that carries impulses away from the cell body
Nerves
bundles of fibers of axons and dendrites
myelin sheath
surrounds and axon leaving a group of gaps called nodes-goes quicker
resting potential
inside is more negatively charged than outside
active potential
outside is more negatively charged than inside
self-propaganating
an impulse on any point of the membrane causes an impulse at the next point along the membrane
synapse
location at which a neuron can transfer an impulse to another cell
neurotransmitters
chemicals used by a neuron to transmit an impulse across a synapse to another cell
Division of Nervous system
Central Nervous System and Periphereal nervous system
Central Nervous System
Brain and spinal cord
Meninges
three layers of connective tissue that the brain and spinal cord are wrapped in
cerebrospinal fluid
fluid in the space between teh meninges that acts as a shock absorber that protects the central nervous system.