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69 Cards in this Set

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Homologous Structures
Have origins in common, placed in groups depending on how similar or different the organisms are
Dimorphisms
Males and females don't look alike in the same species, like peacocks
Order
(Kings Play Chess On Funny Green Squares)
Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
The 2 Domains
Eukaryota and Prokaryota
Prokaryota
No nucleus, single chromosome without introns, no membrane bound organelles, small ribosomes, simple solid flagellum, small cells
Eukaryota
Nucleus, Numerous chromosomes containing introns, complex membrane bound organelles, large ribosomes, tubed complex flagellum, large cells
Autotrophic
Makes own food
Heterotrophic
Gets food from the environment
Chemoautotrophic
Eats ions
Directed Panspermia
Another life form created a life form and put it here
Undirected Panspermia
Life spores traveled on meteors which crashed into earth and somehow survived and evolved
3 Possibilities of the Origin of Life
1) God made life ex nihil
2) Life didn't start here (panspermia)
3) Life originated on this planet in the distant past when the conditions on this planet allowed it to create
Spontaneous Generation
Defies "all cells from cells", says life forms had no parents, they spontaneously formed
Reducing Atmosphere
No oxygen, no oxidizing, dense atmosphere. WHAM:
Water vapor, Hydrogen, Ammonia, Methane. Thought of by Stanley Miller.
Eobacterium isolatum
First fossils, heterotrophs, 3.5 billion years old
Anerobic
Type of bacteria, need oxygen to survive
Aerobic
Type of bacteria. Do not know how, can't use oxygen
Archebacteria
Prokaryotic bacteria, anerobic, extreme environments, cell walls lack peptidoglycon
Thermoacidiphiles
Like heat(100*C) and acidic, found in hot springs and volcanic vents
Extreme Halophiles
Like it salty, more than the ocean, aerobic, no competition for survival
Methanogens
Take organic material ad rot it, can't use oxygen so instead they use methane to break down their food and make carbon dioxide, found in animal guts
Eubacteria
Prokaryotice kingdom, contain peptidoglycon in cell walls and based on how much is divided into 2 groups: gram+ and gram-
Gram Positive
Only peptidoglycon in cell walls
Gram Negative
Peptidoglycon and lipoproteins
Gram
Staining technique, positive or negative based on what colors stuck to the bacteria
Lactic Acid bacteria
All Gram+, make lactic acid which curdles milk and preserves certain foods
Actinomycetes
Found in soil, grow in filaments and kill gram- bacteria
Cyanobacteria
Blue-green, contain chlorophyll and phycocyanin, photosynthetic
Toxins
Released by bacteria and make other organisms ill, cause tissues to fall apart, usually attack their host by poisons
Pathogen
Infecter agent, gram+, cause diseases
Virulence
The ability to harm the host, can change and kill
Resistence
The ability of the host to resist the pathogen, organisms develop it through immunities
Leukocytes
Part of immune system, eat everything that isn't you (mostly large stuff like splinters) as long as it is also organic, which the Lysosomes digest
Lymphocytes
Make antibodies, preprogrammed genetically to make copy molecules, any foreign protein is destroyed and an antibody is created
Endospore
Growing technique that bacteria use
De-nitrofying Bacteria
Take nitrogen compounds and convert them into nitrogen gas
Nitrogen Fixers
Take nitorgen gas and makes it solid, comes in 2 different ways, Cyanobacteria(takes N out of the air and makes N compounds) and Genus Rhizobium (takes N out of the air and puts into N cycle)
Legumes
Has Genus Rhizobium, mostly beans, source of N lighting - produce nitrates in rain
Virus
Consists of outer coating made of protein and inside holds genetics and nucleic acids, take over cells to make copies of itself then destroys the cells, causes illness, DNA RNA and proteins, infectous living fluid, 2 kinds (DNA and RNA)
Retrovirus
RNA virus that when it infects a cell it codes a protien which reads the RNA codes backwards
Viroids
Naked RNA, the RNA infects a cell and makes more RNA then ruptures the cell, then the RNA molecules spread and infect more cells
Prions
Infectous protiens, diseases such as scrapie, mad cow, Kuru. self replicating, caught by ingestion, focus on attacking the cenntral nervous system
Kingdom Protista
Lumping. Unicellular, colonial, filamentous, multicellular. 2 Big Groups (autotrophs and heterotrophs)
Autotrophs
Chloroplasts (colored), algae
Phylum rhodophyta
Red algae, chlorophyll A & C, store food as carbs but not starch, macroscopic, all marine, sexually reproduce
Phylum Phaeophyta
Brown algae, Chlorophyll A & B, store food as alcohol, macroscopic, mostly marine but some freshwater, edible
Phylum Chlorophyta
Green algae, chlorophyll A & B, cellulose walls that store starch, unicellular, multicellular, motile, colonial, filamentous, origin of all land plants
Phulum Chupophyta
Golden algae, Chlorophyll A & B, microscopic, fresh and marine, store food as oil
Diatomeceous Earth
Act as a filter for water, polishing agent
Phylum Flagellates
Mastigophora, use seconday endosymbiosis which allows the chloroplasts that they wat the be used for themselves, found in pond water
Pellicle
Surrounds the organism with plasma membrane underneath
Genus Trypansoma
Tse tse fly, infects central nervous system and causes sleeping sickness
Phylum Sarcudinu
asexual by mitosis, motile, 3 kinds (entomoeba histolytica, radiolarian, foraminifera)
Entomoeba histolytica
Found in water (Mexico), rips up large intestine and causes ulcerations
Radiolaria
Make shells out of silica, transparent, resemble diatoms without any color
Phylum Apicomplexa
Sporazoa, have 2 hosts: Humans and Genus Anapholes, highly pathogenic(malaria) and cause fevers at intervals, can be controlled with drugs
Gullet
Allows food to hit plasma membrane and be digested
Oral Groove
Gets food into organism
Conjugation
reproduce chromosomes of macronucleus
Phylum Myxomycetes
Slime molds, sexually reproduce, protist kingdom(nowhere else to go)
Kingdom Fungi
Mushrooms, same level taxonomically as plants and animals but much simpler structurally, have cell walls made of chitin, don't have gametes but undergo sexual reproduction, don't ingest food but grow through it
Hypha
String of cells that form a mycelium when intertwined
Mycelia
Entertwined hyphi,can produce hundreds of thousands of fungal spores
Phylum zygomycetes
Form a zygospore after sexual cycle, little spots are black to protect from sun, mold on white bread
Phylum Ascomycetes
"Sac fungi", 8 ascospores, pod shape, form a conidium
Phylum Deuteromucetes
Imperfect fungi, have mo idea where their sexual cycle is, when it is founf it turns out to be ascomycetes
Genus Penecillium
Makes penecillin, kills bacteria
Mycorrhizae
Mutualism between soil fungi and plant roots, the soil fungi grow through the roots and absorb material through hyphi, acts as secondary set of roots
Lichen
Mutualism between a fungus and algae, grow slowly, live a long time, grow anywhere with moisture