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51 Cards in this Set

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define tissues
a functional group of cells of the same structure
define organs
functional structures made of ALL four tissue types
epithelial tissue- unique characteristic and example
cells regenerate rapidly
ex) skin, inner tube of digestive tract
connective (supportive) cells- unique characteristic, examples, function
-all have abundant etracellular material b/c cells are spaced widely apart
-ex)bone, blood, cartilage
-produce a non-cellular matrix important in providing support to body
what is the noncellular matrix of blood?
plasma
what is the important elastic protein that composes much of the non-cellular matrix of many connective tissues (eyes, ligaments)?
collagen
-muscle tissue: unique characteristic, 3 types of muscle and where found
-relative abundance of actin and myosin filaments
-smooth muscle: involuntary; cardiac muscle: in heart; skeletal muscle: voluntary
nerve tissue- what is it responsible for?
electrochemical communication
what does an organ system do?
has a higher level of organization to play certain roles (specialization)
where are the first distinguishable cell layers found in development?
gastrula
synchronous hermaphrodites- define & example
-common? self-fertilizing?
they have both active male and female parts at the same time, ex) grouper
-rare and don't self-fertilize
parthenogenesis- define and example
-what decides if eggs are male or female?
-"virgin birth": young produced w/out fertilization ex) desert whiptail lizards and daphnia
-warm months: females develop
-cold or dry months: some eggs are male which sexually respond w/ females
many parthenogenic offspring are _______ ex)
haploid ex) bees, wasps, ants
what do you call an organism that derives its food from complex organic substances? what does it require these substances for?
heteretroph
-requires to get its carbon for growth & development
-fats: what type are less harmful? what type are worse?
mono and polyunsaturated fats are less harmful; trans and unsaturated are worse
what are trans fats made of? what does it do to cholesterol? what does it do to cells?
made of mono and polyunsaturated fats that have been hydrogenated; it increases bad cholesterol and decreases good cholesterol; damages cell membranes
what types of fat are on food labels in US? how do you find the other type?
they list polyunsaturated and monounsaturated
-if you add those with saturated fat and the total doesn't equal total fat, the difference is the amt of trans fat
vitamins
organic substances that function in metabolism in a variety of ways
Vitamin A- what is it? where is it found? deficiency or other problems?
-precursor to retinal, it's an antioidant used in vision/growth
-found in dairy, fish, eggs, veggies
-too much can be toxic, lead to fractures, or birth defects in pregnancy
Thiamine (B1)- what is it? where is it found?
-coenzyme in cellular respiration
-found in meat, yeast, whole grains, veggies
Riboflavin (B2)- what is it? where is it found?
-enzyme in cellular respiration
-liver, eggs, dairy, veggies
what do all of the B vitamins do?
support energy production by aiding metabolism
Niacin(nicotinic acid or B3) what does it do?
precurser to NAD and NADP, which function in energy metabolism in cells and DNA repair
vitamin b12 (cobalamin)- what does it do? where is it found?
-necessary for synthesis of red blood cells and maintainence of nervous system
-exclusively made by bacteria, found in meat, eggs, dairy, organic veggies
Vitamin C- what is it? what does it do? deficiency or problem with it? what tissue is most sensitive to it?
-coenzyme in the synthesis of collagen
-maintains iron in reduced state, thus preserving activity of hundreds of enzymes
-deficiency is called Scurvy
-tussue that contail lg. amts of collagen such as blood vessels and bone
Vitamin D- what does it do? where is it synthesized? deficiency or problems?
-absorption of calcium from the intestine and bone
-synthesized by skin
-Rickets
Vitamin E (tocopherol)- function? found where?
-antioxidant
-egg yolk, veggies, veggie oils
Iron- function? deficiency or problems? source?
-used in many things, like hemoglobin and thyroid hormones involved in metabolism homeostasis
-deficiency shows up first as anemia, can be goiter too
-iodized salt
Proteins- source?
-our bodies make it from amino acids....we can construct 12, 8 must be eaten "essential amino acids" (veggies)
what are colonial animals? ex)
have cell specialization as precursors to organs ex) sponges, seastars
what happens in chemical digestion? where does it occur cellularly?
chief cells secrete pepsinogen, parietal cells secrete HCl
-happens in gastric pits mucous cells
duodenum- main job
to complete chemical digestion
cecum-job? how does appendix relate?
helps digest cellulose (fiber)
-appendix is vestigal component, may digest fiber but not important
composition of blood- 2 different parts, and definition(s)
55% plasma- noncellular matrix of blood
-45% blood cells
types of bloodcells (3)
1)red (erythrocytes)- transport oxygen *no nucleus in mammals*
2) white (leukocytes)- immunological defenses
3) platelets- blood clotting
what do immunoglobins do?
transport nutrients, wastes, gases, hormones
artria under ___ pressure, ventricles under ___ pressure
low; high
fetal circulation
reoxygenated blood: umbilical vein> ductus venosus> posterior vena cava> deox. and ox. blood mix and enter heart
what is a "blue baby"
syndrome that occurs when valve of the foramen ovale fails or only partially closes
what is the surface area for gas exchange?
capillaries
systolic vs diastolic blood pressure
systolic- peak pressure;
diastolic- lowest pressure
3 ways CO2 gets from tissue to lungs
1) as bicarbonate ions HCO3-2)attatched to hemoglobin
3)dissolved in plasma
3 functions of circulatory system
1) transportation 2) regulation 3) protection
4 types of embryonic tissues
endoderm, mesoderm, ectoderm
circulation pathway
deox. blood enters right atrium> right ventricle> lungs> pulmonary artery
then ox. blood goes to left atrium>left ventricle>aorta takes to rest of body
3 stages of fertilization
penetration, activation, nuclei fusion
what happens during clevage?
zygote divides into hollow ball of many cells called Blastula... cleavage patterns influanced by yolk variation
gastrulation- what happens to blastula? what forms?
blastula invaginates, 3 cell layers form
what will 3 embryonic cell layers become?
ectoderm- epidermas, neural tissue
-mesoderm- connective, skeletal, muscle
-endoderm- lining of tracts, liver, pancreas
protosomes vs. deuterosomes
protosomes have spiral clevage, determinate development, blastospore becomes mouth
-deuterosomes have radial clevage, indeterminate development, blastospore becomes anus
where does digestion primarily occur what happens there?
in the duodenum- first part of small intestine
-liver and pancreas secretions mix