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68 Cards in this Set

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Describe the relationship between a parasite and it's host
parasites are specialists,, they are usually able to affect only one variety of hosts, they can live inside or outside the host and the host can be a plant or animal
grass -> rabbit -> eagle, what is the reaction between the grass and eagle?
neutral
niche overlap initially leads to what?
competition
The black and yellow bands of a wasp are an example of what?
warning coloration
why are there more insect species per square kilo in a brazilian rain forest than in a redwood forect of the pacific northwest of the usa?
the tropics have been climatically stable for a longer period of time and the niches in the tropics are smaller than those in timperate areas
are producers dependent on the other trophic levels as a food supply?
no
what to herbivores represent
the primary consumers
what must a pyramid of energy have?
a base larger than the other components
how does carbon enter the biomass of animal bodies?
in the form of carbohydrates
how is carbon introduced into the atmosphere
by respiration, volcanic eruptions, and burning of fossil fuels
what is the largest organ of the vertebrate body?
the skin
what do osteoblasts, cartilage, marry cavity formation, and calcium have in common?
they are all associated with bone formation
what kind of joints are freely movable and the bones are separated by a fluid-filled cavity?
synovial joints
what happens during a muscle contraction?
the myofibrils shorten, the actin and myosin filaments slide over each other, the actin filaments move tward the middle of the sarcomere during contraction and away on relaxation, and the muscle thickens
what must normal activity in a motor system include? In a skeletal muscly system? In vertebrates?
the presence of some medium or structural element against which force can be applied, in a skeletal coordinated contraction depends on reciprocal innervation of motor neurons to antagonistic muscle pairs, in vertebrates only skeletal muscle acts to move teh body through the environment
the circulatory system has direct interactions whith what other systems?
the digestive, urinary, and respiratory system
aobut how many quarts of blood does a normal 150 pound human male have?
about 4-5 quarts
what does the pulmonary artery do?
it carries blood away from the right ventricle
where is blood pressure the highest?
in the aorta
what is hemostasis?
in vertebrates it includes blood clot formation, vessel constriction, vessel spasms, and platelets releasing substances that cause them to attract each other
what do the chemoreceptors in the brain do?
monitor carbon dioxide content in the blood and control breathing
where is a bolus formed?
in the mouth
what is in bile?
salts, cholesterol, pigments, and lecithin
what are cholecystokinin, gastrin, and secretin?
hormones
how do most cells use glucose during or shortly after a meal?
as a source of energy
where is the cecum?
the structure located at the junction of the small and large intestines
what are some good barriers to invasion by microbes?
mucous membranes, eye secretions, urine, and gut bacteria
what is the action of the complement system?
1. lysis of a pathogen's membrane
2. marking of pathogens for destruction by macrophages
3. attraction of phagocytes to scene of pathogen invasion
why are memory cells held in reserve?
to be used for rapid response to subsequent intruders of the same type
what is the purpose of a vaccine?
to produce a mild case of the disease, stimulate the immune response, and cause memory cells to be formed
what happens when the body is reexposed to a sensitizing agent?
the IgE antibodies cause the production of prostaglandin and histamine
what is the intestinal tract and example of?
a habitat
all of the populations of different species that occupy and are adapted to a give area are referred to as a what?
community
what denotes a niche?
the range of all factors that influence whether a species can obtain resources essential for survival and reproduction
would rainfall be more likely to affect an animal's habitat or its niche?
it's habitat
whta is mutualism?
a relationship between two species in which they are dependent on each other for survival
what does the rate of energy flow in ecosystems depend on?
the ratio of producers to consumers...the requirements of an ecosystem change with age
the larger the ecosystem...
1. the more flexible it is
2. the more efficient the producers are
3. the more energy must be put in
4. the more energy is abailable for the next trophic level
give an example of a primary carnivore and a primary consumer
a wolf and a cow
why are all living organisms dependent upon plants?
because as producers, they form the base of food chains
what is included in the human axial skeleton?
skull, ribs, sternum, and vertebral column
what is the another word for the kneecap?
patella
what mineral is stored in greatest quantity in bones?
calcium
in spongy bone tissue what are the spaces filled with?
marrow
haversian canals are characteristic of what?
bone tissue
what does exchage across a membrane require?
moisture and pressure gradients
what group of animals has the most efficient respiratory system?
the birds
what is the proper sequence in the flow of air in mammals?
nasal cavities
pharynx
larynx
trachae
bronchi
when humans breathe using only the mouth is filtering diminished more or less than warmning and moisturizing?
more
do humans have an open or closed circulatory system?
closed
what kind of blood does the rigt ventricle pump?
oxygen-poor blood
what makes up the greatest percentage of human plasma?
water
what type of cells include neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils, and monocytes?
white blood cells
who was the first person to develop and demonstrate a successful vaccine?
jenner
what is involved in the barrier to invasion by microbes?
urine, the symbiotic microorganisms already in the body, ciliated mucous membranes, and lysozyme and other enzymes
what do lysozyme do?
destroy the cell wall of invading bacteria
what system includes a groups of about 20 plasma proteins, a cascade of proteins that counteract invasion by coating the invading cells, attracts phagocytic leukocytes to attack invading cells, and causes the lysis of the plasma membranes of invading cells?
the complement system
what is absorption?
the process that moves nutrients into the blood or lymph
what is secretion?
the process that releases digestive enzymes
how is the colon different from the other four?
it does not produce any secretions that aid in the digestive process
is the esophagus an active participant in the digestive process?
no
what is peristalsis?
the process that propels the food down the esophagus into the stomach
how does a community differ from an ecosystem?
a connunity does not include abiotic (nonliving) factors
as an animal grows larger, by what does the surface area increase?
the mathematical square of its dimensions
what is characteristic of larval insects and amphibians?
external gills
how do adult insects exchange respiratory gases?
by means of tracheae
where are blood capillaries, alveolar sacs, interstitial fluid, and connective tissue all found in?
lung tissue
what controls the contraction of the diaphragm and muscles of the rib cage?
areas of the brain