Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/35

Click to flip

35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
allel
an alternative form of a gene
anaphase
the third stage of mitosis, beginning when sister chromatids separate from each other and ending when a complete set of daughter chromosomes has arrived at each of the two poles of the cell
asexual reproduction
the creation of offspring by a single parent, without the participation of sperm and egg
autosome
a chromosome not directly involved in determining the sex of an organism. any chromosome other than X or Y
cancer
uncontrolled mitosis
cell cycle
Cycle that has 3 main parts:
Interphase
Nuclear Division
Cytokinesis
Cell Theory
All cells come from other pre existing cells
Mitosis
Process that brings about an exact division of the nucleus which contains the genetic material
Chromatin
the uncoiled stertched out DNA seen during Interphase
Chromosomes
concentrated tightly wound DNA and proteins that form visible "threads" seen during Mitosis or Meiosis
Genes
special units of instructions on a chromosome, they occupy a specific placed called the locus.
Mitosis
stays the same, exact replic (asexual)
Meiosis
mixes things up (sexual)
Diploid
containing two homologous sets of chromosomes in each cell, one set inherited from each parent
Haploid
containg a single set of chromosomes.
Genetics
the branch of Biology that studies heredity
Heredity
the inheritance of traits
Gregor Mendel
the "father" of genetics
Genes
the factors that control traits, found at a specific place on a specific chromosome
Alleles
the different forms of a gene for the same trait
Purebred (homozygous)
Have 2 of the same alleles for a trait
Hybrid (Heterozygous)
Have 2 different alleles for a trait
PP or pp
Purebred or Homozygous
Pp
hyrbid or heterozygous
Principle of Segregation
During the formation of reproductive cells (gametes) the alleles separate or segregate from each other
Principle of Dominance
Seen in the inheritance of many traits, it does not apply to all genes
P1
parental generation (the parents)
F1
1st filial generation (the 1st generation of offspring)
F2
2nd Filial generation (the 2nd generation of offspring)
Monohybrid Cross
a one fact cross; only looks at one gene
Genotype
the genetic makeup of an organism. the sum of the alleles (ex: TT, Tt, or tt)
Phenotype
physical characteristics of an organism- (how the alleles are expressed; what the organisms looks like) EX: tall or short
Homozygous
2 identical alleles for a trait (Ex: TT or tt)
Heterozygous
2 different alleles for a trait (Tt)
Principle of Independent Assortment
Genes segregate independently during the formation of gametes. To see the reults of this principle you must look at 2 or more traits at the same time. A two-factor cross is known as a dihybrid cross.