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16 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
process of cell division (occurs in actively dividing tissues; growth and development)
the “objective” of mitosis
produce two cells (daughter cells) from one
if the daughter cells are to be functional they each must have...
a full complement of DNA and all the required organelles
• mitosis as a process is principally concerned with ...
how each daughter cell gets a full complement of DNA
Names of Stages of Mitosis
- sometimes called the “resting” phase
- nucleus is well defined with nucleoli
- chromosomes are not visible
- DNA is replicated during this phase, but the cell exhibits no outward manifestation of this process
- centrosomes duplicates and both are located to the same side of the nucleus
- nuclear membrane disappears
- nucleoli disappear
- chromosomes condense, each is now comprised of two (sister) chromatids that are held together by a centromere
- centrosomes begin to migrate to the poles of the cell and the mitotic spindle begins to form
- fully formed spindle at the cellular poles
- duplicated chromosomes align along the equatorial plate
- spindle fibers attach to the a special region of centromere called the kinetochore (each chromatid now has a centromere and kinetochore)
- spindle fibers contract and pull sister chromatids apart
- each chromatids is now called a chromosome
- chromosomes move toward the poles of the cell
- nuclear membranes begins to form around the chromosomes
- chromosomes decondense somewhat
- cytokinesis occurs
animal - cleavage furrow
plants - formation of a cell plate
Three Aspects of Interphase
1. G1 - growth phase (cell enlargement)
2. S (DNA replication; chromosomes copied)
3. G2 (cell enlargement continues)
Two Aspects of Mitotic Phase
• mitosis (karyokinesis) - division of the nucleus
• cytokinesis - division of the cytoplasm
Regulation of the Cell Cycle
• Events that occur during the cell cycle are regulated by a group of proteins called protein kinases
• The activity of protein kinases moves the cell through checkpoints in the cycle
Control of the Cell Cycle
Mitosis and Meiosis
• Mitosis
produces daughter cells which maintain a standard number of chromosomes; two daughter cells result
• Meiosis
produces daughter cells which have half the number of chromosomes; four daughter cells result