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85 Cards in this Set

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The functions of a cell's nucleus are...
contains genetic information
Where is the nucleus found?
Inside both the animal and plant cell
The functions of a microtuble are...
1. piping system inside the cytoplasm
2. assist in cell division (chromosome mvmt.)
3.Support (part of a network of fibers that lie under the cytoplasm)
4. cell movement (sliding fibers under membrane enables cell mvmt.)
What structures contain microtubles?
1.centrioles
2. cilia and flagells
3. spindle fibers
What are microtubules made up of?
tubulin (protein)
2 subunits of tubulin
The functions of a centrioles are ....
form spindle fibers to seperate chromosomes during cell division
Where are centrioles found?
Only in animal cells
What is a cilia?
a projecting organelle that exerts a force on surrounding medium

hair-like cells with oar-like mvmt.
usually many rows of cilia
coorinated movement
can be hundreds on one cell
The function of a cilia/flagella is....
1. to move the cell
2. to move an object
3. pull in food
Whare are cilia found?
examples:
in the falllopian tube
in lungs
What is a flagella?
a organelle with whip like motion

they are usually longer in length than cilia
What are the functions of microfilaments?
1. support/cell mvmt. -lie under cell membrane
2. muscle contraction
3. cell division- pinch off cell like a purse string
4. cytoplasmic streaming- organelles move around cytoplasm
What is cytoskeleton
a network of protein fibers that is anchored to protein in the membrane
What does cytoskeleton do.....
1. are in dynamic movement
2. can appear and tretract quickly
3. anchors organelles
4. serves as a site for some enzymes to attach
What makes up cytoskeleton?
1. microtubules
2. microfilaments
3. intermediate fibers
What is endoplasmic reticulum?
a system of interconnecting sacs
What is smooth e.r.
e.r that is lacking ribosomes
What is rough e.r.?
e.r. with ribosomes that are the site of protein synthesis
What are the functions of e.r.??
1. enzymes embedded in the membrane make lipids (steriods, triglycerides)
2. transport of protein
3. grow polypeptide with signals
What is a basal body?
where are microtubules are organized by region, same structure as centriole
What does a ribosome do?
Makes protein
What is a Golgi body?
packaging center for substances that the cell manufacturers for transport, Especially useful in protein distribution.
Functions of a golgi body are....
1. sotres and accumulates cellular products for secretion
2. forms
~glycoproteins (protein-carbohydrate)
~glycolipid (lipid-carbohydrate)
#both are components of cell membrane
3. make lysosomes
What are lysosomes?
A liquid filled organelle that contains hydrolytic enzymes
Examples of lysosome activity...
1. digests coat of egg to allow sperm inside
2. causes rheumatoid arthritis by excessive amount of lysosomes
3. causes hurler's syndrome by an insufficient lysosome activity4
What are microbodies?
membrane bound with lipid inside
~ peroxisomes (animals)
~ glycoxisomes (plants)
What is a chloroplast?
An organelle of photosynthesis
What is a plastid?
organelles derived from chloroplast
what is a leucoplast?
It is a modified chloroplast that stores starch
What are chromoplasts?
A modified chloroplast that gives cells color
What does a mitochondria?
It is long bean like sturcture that produces chemical energy for the cell
What are the characterstics of life?
1. movement
2. composed fo cells
3. reproduction
4. response to stimuli
5. growth
6. organization
7. respiration/fermentation
8. presence of DNA/RNA
What are the three possibilties for how life on earth began?
1. special creation-a metaphysical/religious view that involves supernatural or divine forces
2. Extraterrestrial origin- life brought to eath from somewhere else in the universe, perhaps by a comet or meteorite or aliens
3. Spontaneous Origin- process of selection, small changes over many year led to evolution of inanimate matter becoming cells
Why is evolution still being discussed?
because it can be tested but not proved for sure by the miller-urey experiment
What is the Miller-Urey experiment and why is it significant?
A gas such as CO2 CO and H2 passes through a primitive enviroment into an area where electrodes provide energy (space simulating lightning) then several weeks later the experiment got amino acids which perhaps could prove evolution is indeed the way life came around
What is the major sequence of events in the early history of cells?
1. Prokaryotes (cells without a nucleus)
# ancient bacteria (archeobacteria)
2.5 billion years ago
# later simple photosynthetic bacteria
2 billion years ago
increased oxygen level 21%
2. Eukaryotes appear (have a nucleus, more complex structures)
#1.5 billion years ago
3. Multicellular eukaryotes (plants and animals)
# 1 billion years ago
What the most important discovery in science?
the microscope
Who is LeeVanHook?
From the Netherlands and worked wiht lenses and made a magnifying lense, he was the beginning of scientific advancements and the end of dark ages?
Who is Robert Hook?
Invented better microscope and used 2 lenses for more magnification
What is a secretion vesicle?
A vesicle that contentrated with protein and then vesicles fuse together making it very concentrated when it attaches to the outer cell membrane and dumps/secrets into the enviroment
What is resolution?
It is the extent to which detail can be discriminated
What is magnification?
IT is the increase in image size
What is freeze fracture/freeze etching?
It is a method of cell preparation that PRODUCES A 3D IMAGE OF THE INSIDE OF THE CELL
1. freeze cell (use liquid nitrogen to fast freeze)
2. fracture with a knife
3. shadow with a coat of carbon
4. keep coating, discard cell
5. obserce specimen by transmission electron miscroscopy
What is light microscopy?
Resolution canbe up to 1500X however it is limitated to the length of light wavelengths and shorter wavelengths are not visible to your eyes.
IT PRODUCES COLORED IMAGE THAT ARE OF THE OUTER SURFACE OF THE CELL
What is transmission electron miscroscopy?
A electron beam has a very narrow wavelength and can get 1 million resolution
What is transmission electron microscopy?
Electron beam has a very narrow wavelength and can get 1 million resolution.
Must just a thin dead specimen and can't see color
What is scanning electron miscroscopy?
Is useful for surface struture of cells
1. prepare specimen by critical point drying (freeze-dried like coffee)
2. coat with thin layer of gold or other substances
ALLOWS YOU TO SEE OUTER SURFACE OF SPECIMEN
What is diffusion?
a mocvement of molecules from greater to lesser concentration where the molecules are in constant motion
What is osmosis?
The movement of molecules from greater to lesser concentration across a semi-permeable membrane.
What is hypertonic?
High solute shrinks beacuse water lost to enviroment
What is hypotonic?
Low solute expand because water is gained in the cell
What is isotonic?
No lose or gain
What is facilitated diffusion?
It is proteins assisting a molecule to move from greater to lesser concentration
What is active transport?
It is much like facilitated diffusion but instead movement is in the opposite direction. it is when molecules move from lesser to greater concentration and requires energy
What is a symport?
two different molecules or ions move across the membrane together in the same direction
What is antiport?
two different molecules or ions move across the membrane together in the opposite direction
What are the types of cell signaling?
1. direct cell to cell communication
$ molecules move through a gap junction
$ molecules move through a plasmodesmata
2. Paracrine Signaling (not direct contact just close by)
$ molecules secreted over short distance
3. synaptic signaling (involves the nervouse system strictly found in animals cells)
$ electric signal slides down cell then causes cells to secrete molecules and forces target cell to react
4. Endocrine Signaling
$ often movement along a long distance from point of secretion to target cell and the molecule secreted is a hormone
Three Versions of Modern Cell Theory are...
1. all organisms composed of cells
2. cells are the basic unit of organization for living cells
3. cells arise from pre-existing cells (there is no spontaneous generation)
What is the history of the cell theory?
1838 Schleiden (botanist)
1839 Schwann (zoologist)
Both came up with the fact that plant and amical tissues are composed of cells but they discoered it alone
Why are cells small?
Because of the surface to volume ratio cells need to communicate to the outside world by changing gases, obtaining nutrients, and riding waste
How large are cells?
They are typical 10-30 micrometers which is equal 1mm=1000 micrometers
What is the largest cell?
Acetabularia- 5 cm long
some nerve cells - several feet long
What is a cisternae?
The internal guts of a golgi body that is made up of liquid
What is a forming face?
It is where the vesicle starts in a golgi body
What is a maturing face?
It is where the vesicle ends in a golgi body and is very electron dense
What is autophagy?
It is the process of self-cannaiblaism that occurs when the cell is in a period of stress and is performed by a lysosome
What is a residual body?
It is where the undigested remains after a lysosome has digested enzymes
What are hydrolytic enzymes?
Enzymes used to break apart substrate with water
Glycosidases- sugar-sugar substrate
Lipases- glycerol-fatty acids substrate
Proteases- amino acid-amino acid substrate
Nucleases- nucleotide-nucleotide substrate
What are spindle fibers?
S.F. are a thick, rope-like structure that is made up of microtubules that assist in cell division
What is nucleoplasm?
the liquid inside the nucleus
What is cytoplasm?
The liquid outside the nucleus
What is protoplasm?
All the liquid
What is a nuclear envelope?
it is a double membrane layer that surrounds the nucleus and contains nuclear pores and is made up of e.r.
What are intermediate fibers?
one of the fibers that make up the cyoskeleton that are in between microtubules and microfilaments in size
How do cells move using their cytoplasm?
By assembling and disassembling their actin to make microfilaments. the microfilaments then crosslink to make one end rigid and the rigid end pulls the fluid end towards it
Where id mitochondria and chloroplast come from?
probably were ancient bacteria that became symbiotic(which is the cell benefits from the organelle while the organelle benefits from the cell) with eukaryotic cells
What is a phospholipid?
It is composed of two fatty acids attached unto a lycerol molecule with a water soluble group attached to the phosoynl group that is attached to the glycerol.
What is a lipid bilayer?
it is composed of two phospholipids that act as a double layer membrane holding in the cytoplasm with an inner hyrophobic part and two outer hydrophilic parts
What are transmembrane proteins?
they fold between lipid bilayers
What is cholestrol
It is located inside lipid bilayers in animal membrane
What are glycoproteins and glycolipids?
Glycolipids are attached cell receptors on to the hydrophilic part of a lipid where as glycoprotiens are attached cell receptors on to a transmembrane protein
What is the fluid mosiac model?
It proved that cells are made up of liquid because of the dispersion of dyed or tagged molecules
What is endocytosis?
It is the formation of vesicles (requires ATP energy)
3 types
$ pinocytosis- small vesicles
$ phagocytosis- large vesicles
$ receptor-mediated endocytosis- cell is selective on what is allowed into the cell
What is exocytosis?
It is the going out or dropping of vesicles into the outside enviroment
What is gap junction?
Cell is